Myelin basic protein (MBP) is located in the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. By interacting with lipid membranes, it is responsible for compaction of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system, which is weakened in demyelinating diseases. The lipid composition of the myelin leaflet has a high impact on the interaction between the membrane and MBP. Cholesterol is present in the cytoplasmic leaflet with a rather high amount of 44% (mol%). In this study, the focus is on the effect of cholesterol, mainly by varying its content, on the interaction of MBP with a lipid monolayer. Therefore, Langmuir lipid monolayers mimicking the cytoplasmic membrane of myelin and monolayers with variations of cholesterol content between 0% and 100% were measured at the air/water interface with additional imaging by fluorescence microscopy. All experiments were performed with and without bovine MBP to study the dependence of the interaction of the protein with the monolayers on the cholesterol content. The native amount of 44% cholesterol in the monolayer combines optima in the order of the monolayer (presumably correlating to compaction and thermodynamic stability) and protein interaction and shows unique features in comparison to lower or higher cholesterol contents.