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      Rapid Genetic Analysis in Congenital Hyperinsulinism

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          Abstract

          Backgound: In severe, medically unresponsive congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), the histological differentiation of focal versus diffuse disease is vital, since the surgical management is completely different. Genetic analysis may help in the differential diagnosis, as focal CHI is associated with a paternal germline ABCC8 or KCNJ11 mutation and a focal loss of maternal chromosome 11p15, whereas a maternal mutation, or homozygous/compound heterozygous ABCC8 and KCNJ11 mutations predict diffuse-type disease. However, genotyping usually takes too long to be helpful in the absence of a founder mutation. Methods: In 4 patients, a rapid genetic analysis of the ABBC8 and KCNJ11 genes was performed within 2 weeks on request prior to the decision of pancreatic surgery. Results: Two patients had no mutations, rendering the genetic analysis non-informative. Peroperative multiple biopsies showed diffuse disease. One patient had a paternal KCNJ11 mutation and focal disease confirmed by positron emission tomography scan and biopsies. One patient had a de novo heterozygous ABBC8 mutation and unexplained diffuse disease confirmed by positron emission tomography scan and biopsies. Conclusion: A rapid analysis of the entire ABBC8 and KCNJ11 genes should not stand alone in the preoperative assessment of patients with CHI, except for the case of maternal, or homozygous/compound heterozygous disease-causing mutations.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia in infants with regulatory mutations of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene.

          A new form of congenital hyperinsulinism characterized by hypoglycemia and hyperammonemia was described recently. We hypothesized that this syndrome of hyperinsulinism and hyperammonemia was caused by excessive activity of glutamate dehydrogenase, which oxidizes glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate and which is a potential regulator of insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells and of ureagenesis in the liver. We measured glutamate dehydrogenase activity in lymphoblasts from eight unrelated children with the hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome: six with sporadic cases and two with familial cases. We identified mutations in the glutamate dehydrogenase gene by sequencing glutamate dehydrogenase complementary DNA prepared from lymphoblast messenger RNA. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to express the mutations in COS-7 cells. The sensitivity of glutamate dehydrogenase to inhibition by guanosine 5'-triphosphate was a quarter of the normal level in the patients with sporadic hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome and half the normal level in patients with familial cases and their affected relatives, findings consistent with overactivity of the enzyme. These differences in enzyme insensitivity correlated with differences in the severity of hypoglycemia in the two groups. All eight children were heterozygous for the wild-type allele and had a mutation in the proposed allosteric domain of the enzyme. Four different mutations were identified in the six patients with sporadic cases; the two patients with familial cases shared a fifth mutation. In two clones of COS-7 cells transfected with the mutant sequence from one patient, the sensitivity of the enzyme to guanosine 5'-triphosphate was reduced, findings similar to those in the child's lymphoblasts. The hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome is caused by mutations in the glutamate dehydrogenase gene that impair the control of enzyme activity.
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            Familial hyperinsulinism caused by an activating glucokinase mutation.

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              Practical management of hyperinsulinism in infancy.

              Hyperinsulinism in infancy is one of the most difficult problems to manage in contemporary paediatric endocrinology. Although the diagnosis can usually be achieved without difficulty, it presents the paediatrician with formidable day to day management problems. Despite recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of hyperinsulinism, the neurological outcome remains poor, and there is often a choice of unsatisfactory treatments, with life long sequelae for the child and his or her family. This paper presents a state of the art overview on management derived from a consensus workshop held by the European network for research into hyperinsulinism (ENRHI). The consensus is presented as an educational aid for paediatricians and children's nurses. It offers a practical guide to management based on the most up to date knowledge. It presents a proposed management cascade and focuses on the clinical recognition of the disease, the immediate steps that should be taken to stabilise the infant during diagnostic investigations, and the principles of definitive treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2007
                March 2007
                15 November 2006
                : 67
                : 4
                : 184-188
                Affiliations
                Departments of aPaediatrics, bClinical Genetics, cPathology, and dSurgical Gastroenterology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; eDepartment of Paediatrics, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, and fDepartment of Paediatrics, University Hospital of Lund, Lund, Sweden; gLondon Centre for Paediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, and hInstitute of Child Health, London, UK; iHospital for Children and Adolescents and Biomedicum Helsinki, Developmental and Reproductive Biology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
                Article
                97063 Horm Res 2007;67:184–188
                10.1159/000097063
                17114887
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 34, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper

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