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      Effect of Different Combinations of Phosphorus and Nitrogen Fertilization on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Aphids in Wheat

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          Abstract

          While chemical fertilizers can be used to increase crop yield, the abuse of fertilizers aggravates environmental pollution and soil degradation. Understanding the effects of chemical fertilizers on the interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and pest insects is of great benefit to crop and environmental protection, because AMF can enhance the nutrition absorption and insect resistance of crops. This study tested the effect of different levels of phosphorus, nitrogen, and their interactions on AMF, secondary metabolites, Sitobion avenae in garden, as well as the wheat traits in field. The results showed that AMF colonization on roots in the P0N1 treatment (0 g P/pot, 1.3083 g N/pot in the garden, and 0 g P/plot, 299.84 g N/plot) was the highest in both the garden and the field. The abundance of aphid was reduced in the P0N1 treatment, and there were negative relationships between aphids and AMF and phenolics, but a positive relationship between AMF and phenolics. Our results indicated that a change in the ratio of phosphorus to nitrogen affects the relationship among AMF, aphid abundance, and metabolites. The results also suggested an approach to save chemical fertilizers that could improve crop health and protect the agroecosystem against pollution at the same time.

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          Most cited references 88

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          Nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal symbiosis

           B. Dell,  H Marschner (1994)
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            Functional diversity in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses: the contribution of the mycorrhizal P uptake pathway is not correlated with mycorrhizal responses in growth or total P uptake

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              Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production.

              With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25 per cent by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental health. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be used to enhance yields of staple crops, increase nutrient content and increase resistance to key stresses, including salinity, pathogens and aluminium toxicity, which in turn could expand available arable land.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                11 June 2020
                June 2020
                : 11
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Jin Ming Avenue, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China; wangchao2018henu@ 123456163.com (C.W.); tbl007@ 123456126.com (Z.Y.)
                [2 ]State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Adaptation and Improvement, Jin Ming Avenue, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: liangt@ 123456henu.edu.cn (B.T.); jding@ 123456henu.edu.cn (J.D.); Tel.: +86-0371-23887799 (B.T.); +86-0371-23886199 (J.D.)
                Article
                insects-11-00365
                10.3390/insects11060365
                7349843
                32545401
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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