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      Comparison of forages’ digestion levels for different in vitro digestion techniques in horses

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          Abstract

          Background

          Forages are widely used in horse diets. Different in vitro techniques are being tried to determine the fermentation levels of forages in the horse digestive tract.

          Objectives

          This study aimed to evaluate the digestion levels of four dry forages commonly used in horse nutrition: alfalfa herbage, meadow hay, wheat straw, and Italian ryegrass. In vitro total digestion (TDT), in vitro Sunvold–large intestine digestion (SDT) and in vitro Menke–large intestine digestion (MDT) techniques were compared.

          Methods

          The study determined in vitro true dry matter digestion (T‐DMD), in vitro true organic matter digestion (T‐OMD) and in vitro true neutral detergent fibre digestion (T‐NDFD). Additionally, concentrations of straight short‐chain fatty acids (SCFAs; acetic acid – AA, propionic acid , butyric acid, and valeric acid ) and branched short‐chain fatty acids (BSCFA) were assessed.

          Results

          The highest in vitro T‐DMD, T‐OMD and T‐NDFD values were determined by the in vitro TDT for the four forages ( p < 0.05). In vitro T‐DMD and T‐OMD values of alfalfa herbage were higher than those of Italian ryegrass, meadow hay and wheat straw in the in vitro TDT ( p < 0.001). In addition, in vitro T‐DMD and T‐OMD values of alfalfa herbage in the in vitro SDT were higher than those of meadow hay and wheat straw ( p < 0.001). In the in vitro TDT, the molarity of AA, total SCFA and BSCFA in the digestion fluid of alfalfa herbage was higher than those of other forages ( p < 0.05).

          Conclusion

          The in vitro total enzymatic + fermentative digestion technique for horse forages revealed higher values than the in vitro fermentative digestion techniques. In general, the higher the non‐structural carbohydrate and crude protein contents in the forage, the higher the results of the in vitro TDT compared to the other techniques.

          Translated abstract

          The in vitro total enzymatic + fermentative digestion technique for horse forages revealed higher values than the in vitro fermentative digestion techniques. In general, the higher the non‐structural carbohydrate and crude protein contents in the forage, the higher the results of the in vitro TDT compared to the other techniques.

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          Most cited references45

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          Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition.

          There is a need to standardize the NDF procedure. Procedures have varied because of the use of different amylases in attempts to remove starch interference. The original Bacillus subtilis enzyme Type IIIA (XIA) no longer is available and has been replaced by a less effective enzyme. For fiber work, a new enzyme has received AOAC approval and is rapidly displacing other amylases in analytical work. This enzyme is available from Sigma (Number A3306; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO). The original publications for NDF and ADF (43, 53) and the Agricultural Handbook 379 (14) are obsolete and of historical interest only. Up to date procedures should be followed. Triethylene glycol has replaced 2-ethoxyethanol because of reported toxicity. Considerable development in regard to fiber methods has occurred over the past 5 yr because of a redefinition of dietary fiber for man and monogastric animals that includes lignin and all polysaccharides resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes. In addition to NDF, new improved methods for total dietary fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides including pectin and beta-glucans now are available. The latter are also of interest in rumen fermentation. Unlike starch, their fermentations are like that of cellulose but faster and yield no lactic acid. Physical and biological properties of carbohydrate fractions are more important than their intrinsic composition.
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            The role of short-chain fatty acids in the interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and host energy metabolism.

            Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the end products of fermentation of dietary fibers by the anaerobic intestinal microbiota, have been shown to exert multiple beneficial effects on mammalian energy metabolism. The mechanisms underlying these effects are the subject of intensive research and encompass the complex interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and host energy metabolism. This review summarizes the role of SCFAs in host energy metabolism, starting from the production by the gut microbiota to the uptake by the host and ending with the effects on host metabolism. There are interesting leads on the underlying molecular mechanisms, but there are also many apparently contradictory results. A coherent understanding of the multilevel network in which SCFAs exert their effects is hampered by the lack of quantitative data on actual fluxes of SCFAs and metabolic processes regulated by SCFAs. In this review we address questions that, when answered, will bring us a great step forward in elucidating the role of SCFAs in mammalian energy metabolism.
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              Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Horses and Horses with Colitis by High Throughput Sequencing of the V3-V5 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene

              The intestinal tract houses one of the richest and most complex microbial populations on the planet, and plays a critical role in health and a wide range of diseases. Limited studies using new sequencing technologies in horses are available. The objective of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiome of healthy horses and to compare the fecal microbiome of healthy horses to that of horses with undifferentiated colitis. A total of 195,748 sequences obtained from 6 healthy horses and 10 horses affected by undifferentiated colitis were analyzed. Firmicutes predominated (68%) among healthy horses followed by Bacteroidetes (14%) and Proteobacteria (10%). In contrast, Bacteroidetes (40%) was the most abundant phylum among horses with colitis, followed by Firmicutes (30%) and Proteobacteria (18%). Healthy horses had a significantly higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Spirochaetes while horses with colitis had significantly more Fusobacteria. Members of the Clostridia class were more abundant in healthy horses. Members of the Lachnospiraceae family were the most frequently shared among healthy individuals. The species richness reported here indicates the complexity of the equine intestinal microbiome. The predominance of Clostridia demonstrates the importance of this group of bacteria in healthy horses. The marked differences in the microbiome between healthy horses and horses with colitis indicate that colitis may be a disease of gut dysbiosis, rather than one that occurs simply through overgrowth of an individual pathogen.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                karakanber@hotmail.com , kanberkara@erciyes.edu.tr
                Journal
                Vet Med Sci
                Vet Med Sci
                10.1002/(ISSN)2053-1095
                VMS3
                Veterinary Medicine and Science
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2053-1095
                18 February 2024
                March 2024
                : 10
                : 2 ( doiID: 10.1002/vms3.v10.2 )
                : e31373
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Erciyes University Kayseri Türkiye
                [ 2 ] Health Sciences Institute Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases Erciyes University Kayseri Türkiye
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Kanber Kara, Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Erciyes University, 38280 Kayseri, Türkiye.

                Email: karakanber@ 123456hotmail.com ; kanberkara@ 123456erciyes.edu.tr

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9867-1344
                Article
                VMS31373
                10.1002/vms3.1373
                10875320
                38369823
                239927af-60c4-4a65-b0e1-dade6bd4215f
                © 2024 The Authors. Veterinary Medicine and Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 14 January 2024
                : 30 October 2023
                : 29 January 2024
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 6, Pages: 13, Words: 9343
                Funding
                Funded by: Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri, Erciyes Üniversitesi , doi 10.13039/501100016209;
                Award ID: TYL‐2022‐11824
                Categories
                Original Article
                EQUINE
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                March 2024
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.3.8 mode:remove_FC converted:19.02.2024

                digestive tract,horse,in vitro digestion,organic matter,short‐chain fatty acids

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