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      Efecto antihiperglucemiante del extracto metanólico de ruda (Ruta Graveolens) en un modelo experimental de ratas hiperglicémicas Translated title: Antihyperglycaemic Effect of the Rue (Ruta graveolens) Methanol Extract in an Experimental Model of Hyperglycemic Rats

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          La ruda (Ruta graveolens) es una hierba perteneciente a la familia Rutaceae, caracterizada por presentar diversas propiedades medicinales. Se ha reportado su uso como parte de la terapéutica en la Diabetes mellitus, basada en el uso de productos naturales. Se condujo una investigación con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto antihiperglucemiante de esta especie vegetal. Se emplearon 70 ratas machos a las cuales se les administró vía oral, dosis crecientes del extracto metanólico de Ruta graveolens entre 0,5 y 2 g/kg. Se incluyó un control positivo, usando glibenclamida® (500μg/kg) como agente hipoglucemiante. Se determinó la concentración de glucosa en plasma en muestras seriadas tomadas de la cola a través del método de la glucosa oxidasaperoxidasa. Se empleó jeringas de polipropileno de alta densidad y aguja de colecta simple, de uso veterinario. El extracto metanólico disminuyó la concentración de glucosa sanguínea a la dosis máxima evaluada 2,0 g/kg (<100 mg/dL). Así mismo, se identificó mediante espectrofotometría ultravioleta, los metabolitos secundarios: rutina y quercetina, los cuales pudieran contribuir a la acción hipoglucemiante. Los resultados sugieren que el extracto metanólico de la Ruta graveolens es capaz de reducir la concentración de glucosa en plasma de ratas hiperglicémicas en forma experimental, lo cual soporta su potencial uso como una alternativa de la medicina tradicional; sin embargo, deben realizarse más estudios para estimar su potencial toxicológico a dosis hipoglicemiantes.

          Translated abstract

          Rue (Ruta graveolens) is an herb belonging to the Rutaceae family, characterized by various medicinal properties. Its consumption has been reported as part of therapy in diabetes mellitus, based on the use of natural products. We conducted an investigation was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic effects of this plant species. A total of 70 male rats were used which were administered orally, increasing doses of methanol extract of Ruta graveolens between 0.5 and 2 g / kg. It included a positive control, using glibenclamide ® (500μg/kg) as a hypoglycemic agent. It was later determined the plasma concentration of glucose in serial samples taken from the tail carrying out the method of glucose oxidase-peroxidase and using polypropylene syringes and needles, high-density collection simple, veterinary. The methanolic extract reduced the blood glucose concentration to the highest dose tested (2.0 g/kg <100mg/dL). Also, were identified by UV spectrophotometer secondary metabolites: routine and quercetin, which could contribute to the hypoglycemic action. The results suggest that the extract methanol of Ruta graveolens is able to reduce plasma glucose concentration in hyperglycemic rats experimentally, which supports its potential use as an alternative to traditional medicine, however, more studies should be performed to estimate its toxicological potential at hypoglycemic dose.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Plants as source of drugs.

           S.M.K. Rates (2001)
          This work presents a study of the importance of natural products, especially those derived from higher plants, in terms of drug development. It describes the main strategies for obtaining drugs from natural sources, fields of knowledge involved, difficulties and perspectives. It also includes a brief discussion of the specific situation in Brazil regarding the use of, trade in, and research into therapeutic resources of natural origin and the general lack of awareness of the use of potentially toxic plants, mainly in folk medicine.
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            Efficacy and safety of incretin therapy in type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

            Pharmacotherapies that augment the incretin pathway have recently become available, but their role in the management of type 2 diabetes is not well defined. To assess the efficacy and safety of incretin-based therapy in adults with type 2 diabetes based on randomized controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals or as abstracts. We searched MEDLINE (1966-May 20, 2007) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (second quarter, 2007) for English-language randomized controlled trials involving an incretin mimetic (glucagonlike peptide 1 [GLP-1] analogue) or enhancer (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 [DPP4] inhibitor). We also searched prescribing information, relevant Web sites, reference lists and citation sections of recovered articles, and abstracts presented at recent conferences. Randomized controlled trials were selected if they were at least 12 weeks in duration, compared incretin therapy with placebo or other diabetes medication, and reported hemoglobin A(1c) data in nonpregnant adults with type 2 diabetes. Two reviewers independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. Differences were resolved by consensus. Meta-analyses were conducted for several efficacy and safety outcomes. Of 355 potentially relevant articles identified, 51 were retrieved for detailed evaluation and 29 met the inclusion criteria. Incretins lowered hemoglobin A(1c) compared with placebo (weighted mean difference, -0.97% [95% confidence interval {CI}, -1.13% to -0.81%] for GLP-1 analogues and -0.74% [95% CI, -0.85% to -0.62%] for DPP4 inhibitors) and were noninferior to other hypoglycemic agents. Glucagonlike peptide 1 analogues resulted in weight loss (1.4 kg and 4.8 kg vs placebo and insulin, respectively) while DPP4 inhibitors were weight neutral. Glucagonlike peptide 1 analogues had more gastrointestinal side effects (risk ratio, 2.9 [95% CI, 2.0-4.2] for nausea and 3.2 [95% CI, 2.5-4.4] for vomiting). Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors had an increased risk of infection (risk ratio, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0-1.4] for nasopharyngitis and 1.5 [95% CI, 1.0-2.2] for urinary tract infection) and headache (risk ratio, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.1-1.7]). All but 3 trials had a 30-week or shorter duration; thus, long-term efficacy and safety could not be evaluated. Incretin therapy offers an alternative option to currently available hypoglycemic agents for nonpregnant adults with type 2 diabetes, with modest efficacy and a favorable weight-change profile. Careful postmarketing surveillance for adverse effects, especially among the DPP4 inhibitors, and continued evaluation in longer-term studies and in clinical practice are required to determine the role of this new class among current pharmacotherapies for type 2 diabetes.
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              New drug targets for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.

              An insidious increase in features of the 'metabolic syndrome' - obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia -- has conspired to produce a worldwide epidemic of type 2 insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. Most current therapies for this disease were developed in the absence of defined molecular targets or an understanding of disease pathogenesis. Emerging knowledge of key pathogenic mechanisms, such as the impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and the role of 'lipotoxicity' as a probable cause of hepatic and muscle resistance to insulin's effects on glucose metabolism, has led to a host of new molecular drug targets. Several have been validated through genetic engineering in mice or the preliminary use of lead compounds and therapeutic agents in animals and humans.

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias
                Rev. Fac. Cienc. Vet.
                Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Universidad Central de Venezuela. (Maracay )
                December 2011
                : 52
                : 2
                : 119-126
                [1 ] , Universidad Central de Venezuela Venezuela


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