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      Characteristics of Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance: data from four different populations


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          To describe the characteristics of Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori) antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates from four populations.


          In total, 1463 H. pylori strains were examined for antibiotic resistance. Among these strains, 804 were isolated from treatment-naïve adults, 133 from previously treated adults, 100 from treatment-naïve children and 426 from a population who participated in a health survey (age ≥ 40 years). The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the E-test method.


          In the treatment-naïve adult group, the resistance rates for metronidazole, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, rifampicin and tetracycline were 78.4, 19.0, 23.3, 1.2, 1.7 and 2.3%, respectively. Compared with this group, the previously treated adult group had significantly higher resistance rates for metronidazole (99.2%), clarithromycin (58.3%) and levofloxacin (52.3%). In addition, the treatment-naïve children had a lower metronidazole resistance rate (46.0%) than the treatment-naïve adults. The resistance rate for clarithromycin was low in treatment-naïve patients with ages ranging from 10 to 24 years. For the strains isolated from the general population group, the resistance rates for metronidazole, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, rifampicin and tetracycline were 78.6, 10.1, 25.1, 0.5, 2.1 and 0.9%, respectively. Compared with the treatment-naïve adult group, the general population group showed significant differences in clarithromycin resistance.


          The resistance rates for metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin were high, especially in previously treated adults. Compared to those in treatment-naïve younger patients, the resistance rates for clarithromycin were significantly lower in treatment-naïve patients with ages ranging from 10 to 24 years and in the general population.

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          Systematic review and meta-analysis: susceptibility-guided versus empirical antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection.

          The cure rate of standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection is unacceptably low. Susceptibility-guided therapies (SGTs) have been proposed as an alternative to standard empirical treatments. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the efficacy of SGTs.
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            The concomitant administration of systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole compared to scaling and root planing alone in treating periodontitis: =a systematic review=

            Background The treatment of periodontitis begins with a non-surgical phase that includes scaling and root planing(SRP) and on occasion the use of systemic antibiotics. The goal was to systematically evaluate in systemic healthy adults the effect of the concomitant administration of amoxicillin (amx) and metronidazole (met) adjunctive to SRP compared to SRP alone. Methods The PubMed-MEDLINE, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched up to November 2014 to identify appropriate studies. Probing Pocket Depth (PD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Bleeding on Pocket Probing(BOP) and Plaque Indices(PI) were selected as outcome variables. Based on the extracted data a meta-analysis was conducted. Results A total of 526 unique articles were found, 20 studies met the eligibility criteria. A meta-analysis showed that SRP + amx + met provided significantly better effects overall and more pronounced PD reduction in periodontal pockets initially measuring ≥6 mm (DiffM:-0.86 mm, p < 0.00001) and gain in CAL(DiffM:+0.75 mm, p = 0.0001). The meta-analysis for the secondary inflammatory parameter BOP showed that SRP + amx + met provided full mouth significantly greater reduction in BOP than SRP alone (DiffM:-6.98 %, p = 0.0001). Conclusion Adjunctive systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole medication to SRP significantly improved the clinical outcomes with respect to mean PD, CAL and BOP compared to SRP alone. There is moderate to strong evidence in support of the recommendation that adjunctive amx + met therapy to SRP significantly improves the clinical outcomes, with respect to mean PD and CAL compared to SRP alone especially in initially deep (≥6 mm) pockets. No major side effects associated with the intake of amx + met were reported. This treatment regimen is an efficacious, minimally invasive, practical and inexpensive approach for periodontitis therapy. The key components are mechanical tooth and pocket debridement, supportive treatment of the disease with systemic antibiotics and attention to proper self-care. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12903-015-0123-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              Epidemiology, clinical impacts and current clinical management of Helicobacter pylori infection.

              Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. More than 50% of the global population is estimated to be infected. Differences in prevalence exist within and between countries, with higher prevalence seen among people with lower socio-economic status. Most transmission of infection occurs early in life, predominantly from person to person in the family setting. H. pylori is the cause of most peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and causes symptoms in a subset of patients with functional dyspepsia. Choice of diagnostic test depends on the clinical context; urea breath tests and endoscopy with biopsy are the major diagnostic tools. Evidence-based indications for eradication of H. pylori infection are well documented. The most widely used and recommended eradication therapy in Australia is triple therapy comprising a proton pump inhibitor, amoxycillin and clarithromycin, usually for 1 week. Effective alternative regimens are available for patients with proven allergy to penicillin. Antimicrobial resistance is the major determinant of the outcome of eradication therapy. Trends in antibiotic resistance need to be monitored locally, but individual patient susceptibility testing is not usually necessary as it rarely guides the choice of therapy. The outcome of treatment should be assessed not less than 4 weeks after therapy. This is usually done with a urea breath test if follow-up endoscopy is not required. When first-line therapy fails, several proven second-line therapies may be used. Repeat first-line therapy and ad hoc regimens should be avoided. Overall cumulative eradication rates should approach 99%.

                Author and article information

                Antimicrob Resist Infect Control
                Antimicrob Resist Infect Control
                Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
                BioMed Central (London )
                27 November 2019
                27 November 2019
                : 8
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1758 4073, GRID grid.412604.5, Department of Gastroenterology, , The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, ; Nanchang, Jiangxi Province China
                [2 ]Department of Gastroenterology, Children’s Hospital of Jiangxi, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province China
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: the National Key Research and Development Program of China
                Award ID: 2016YFC1302201
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China (CN)
                Award ID: 81460115
                Funded by: the Science and Technology Projects of Jiangxi Province
                Award ID: 2014BBG70019
                Funded by: Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Science and Technology and Industrial Development of Jiangxi Traditional Medicine (CN)
                Award ID: 20132BAB205040
                Award Recipient :
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                © The Author(s) 2019

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                helicobacter pylori,clarithromycin,general population,resistance


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