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      Global networks for invasion science: benefits, challenges and guidelines

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          Does global change increase the success of biological invaders?

          Biological invasions are gaining attention as a major threat to biodiversity and an important element of global change. Recent research indicates that other components of global change, such as increases in nitrogen deposition and atmospheric CO2 concentration, favor groups of species that share certain physiological or life history traits. New evidence suggests that many invasive species share traits that will allow them to capitalize on the various elements of global change. Increases in the prevalence of some of these biological invaders would alter basic ecosystem properties in ways that feed back to affect many components of global change.
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            Global shifts towards positive species interactions with increasing environmental stress.

            The study of positive species interactions is a rapidly evolving field in ecology. Despite decades of research, controversy has emerged as to whether positive and negative interactions predictably shift with increasing environmental stress as hypothesised by the stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH). Here, we provide a synthesis of 727 tests of the SGH in plant communities across the globe to examine its generality across a variety of ecological factors. Our results show that plant interactions change with stress through an outright shift to facilitation (survival) or a reduction in competition (growth and reproduction). In a limited number of cases, plant interactions do not respond to stress, but they never shift towards competition with stress. These findings are consistent across stress types, plant growth forms, life histories, origins (invasive vs. native), climates, ecosystems and methodologies, though the magnitude of the shifts towards facilitation with stress is dependent on these factors. We suggest that future studies should employ standardised definitions and protocols to test the SGH, take a multi-factorial approach that considers variables such as plant traits in addition to stress, and apply the SGH to better understand how species and communities will respond to environmental change. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
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              RAPID EVOLUTION OF AN INVASIVE PLANT

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biological Invasions
                Biol Invasions
                Springer Nature
                1387-3547
                1573-1464
                April 2017
                November 2016
                : 19
                : 4
                : 1081-1096
                Article
                10.1007/s10530-016-1302-3
                © 2017

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