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      Genome‐wide identification of EMBRYO ‐ DEFECTIVE ( EMB ) genes required for growth and development in Arabidopsis

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      New Phytologist

      Wiley

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          Abstract

          With the emergence of high-throughput methods in plant biology, the importance of long-term projects characterized by incremental advances involving multiple laboratories can sometimes be overlooked. Here, I highlight my 40-year effort to isolate and characterize the most common class of mutants encountered in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana): those defective in embryo development. I present an updated dataset of 510 EMBRYO-DEFECTIVE (EMB) genes identified throughout the Arabidopsis community; include important details on 2200 emb mutants and 241 pigment-defective embryo (pde) mutants analyzed in my laboratory; provide curated datasets with key features and publication links for each EMB gene identified; revisit past estimates of 500-1000 total EMB genes in Arabidopsis; document 83 double mutant combinations reported to disrupt embryo development; emphasize the importance of following established nomenclature guidelines and acknowledging allele history in research publications; and consider how best to extend community-based curation and screening efforts to approach saturation for this diverse class of mutants in the future. Continued advances in identifying EMB genes and characterizing their loss-of-function mutant alleles are needed to understand genotype-to-phenotype relationships in Arabidopsis on a broad scale, and to document the contributions of large numbers of essential genes to plant growth and development.

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          Most cited references 174

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          Genome-wide insertional mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana.

          Over 225,000 independent Agrobacterium transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertion events in the genome of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been created that represent near saturation of the gene space. The precise locations were determined for more than 88,000 T-DNA insertions, which resulted in the identification of mutations in more than 21,700 of the approximately 29,454 predicted Arabidopsis genes. Genome-wide analysis of the distribution of integration events revealed the existence of a large integration site bias at both the chromosome and gene levels. Insertion mutations were identified in genes that are regulated in response to the plant hormone ethylene.
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            Genome-wide analysis of Arabidopsis pentatricopeptide repeat proteins reveals their essential role in organelle biogenesis.

            The complete sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome revealed thousands of previously unsuspected genes, many of which cannot be ascribed even putative functions. One of the largest and most enigmatic gene families discovered in this way is characterized by tandem arrays of pentatricopeptide repeats (PPRs). We describe a detailed bioinformatic analysis of 441 members of the Arabidopsis PPR family plus genomic and genetic data on the expression (microarray data), localization (green fluorescent protein and red fluorescent protein fusions), and general function (insertion mutants and RNA binding assays) of many family members. The basic picture that arises from these studies is that PPR proteins play constitutive, often essential roles in mitochondria and chloroplasts, probably via binding to organellar transcripts. These results confirm, but massively extend, the very sparse observations previously obtained from detailed characterization of individual mutants in other organisms.
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              Genes involved in organ separation in Arabidopsis: an analysis of the cup-shaped cotyledon mutant.

               M Aida,  H Fujisawa,  T Ishida (1997)
              Mutations in CUC1 and CUC2 (for CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON), which are newly identified genes of Arabidopsis, caused defects in the separation of cotyledons (embryonic organs), sepals, and stamens (floral organs) as well as in the formation of shoot apical meristems. These defects were most apparent in the double mutant. Phenotypes of the mutants suggest a common mechanism for separating adjacent organs within the same whorl in both embryos and flowers. We cloned the CUC2 gene and found that the encoded protein was homologous to the petunia NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) protein, which is thought to act in the development of embryos and flowers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New Phytologist
                New Phytol
                Wiley
                0028-646X
                1469-8137
                April 2020
                April 2020
                : 226
                : 2
                : 306-325
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Plant Biology, Ecology, and Evolution Oklahoma State University Stillwater OK 74078 USA
                Article
                10.1111/nph.16071
                31334862
                © 2020

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