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      Voxel-Based Analysis of Gray Matter and CSF Space in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus


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          Aims: To investigate regional morphologic changes in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) based on diagnosis with INPH Guidelines using voxel-based morphometry. Method: Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 34 INPH patients, who met probable INPH criteria, probable 34 Alzheimer disease patients, and 34 normal control subjects. Results: Statistical parametric mapping was used to conduct voxel-based morphometry analysis of the morphologic data and revealed enlarged ventricles and sylvian fissures and stenotic sulci of high convexity, especially in the precuneus in the INPH group, with decreased gray matter density in the insula, caudate and thalamus. Conclusion: In INPH, morphologic change occurs in the frontoparietal high convexity with ventricular dilatations, dilated sylvian fissures and tight sulci in the medial parietal lobes.

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          Clinical guidelines for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

          Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a syndrome characterized by gait disturbance, dementia, and/or urinary incontinence without causative disorders, and ventricular enlargement due to disturbance of the cerebrospinal fluid (SF) circulation. The number of patients with iNPH will increase with the aging of the population in Japan. However, iNPH is often difficult to differentiate from other senile disorders such as lumbar canal stenosis, parkinsonism, and so on. Clinical guidelines for iNPH are required to improve understanding and provide for patients' quality of life and social care. These guidelines propose three levels of iNPH: possible, probable, and definite. Possible iNPH includes one or more of the classical triad and ventricular dilation in middle aged and elderly patients with closing of the CSF space at high convexity on magnetic resonance imaging. Probable iNPH shows improvement of the symptoms after CSF removal in patients with possible iNPH. Definite iNPH shows clinical improvement after CSF shunt operation. The CSF tap test is a major diagnostic measure because of the simplicity and less invasiveness. Use of the programmable valve is recommended to decrease CSF overdrainage. These guidelines are helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of iNPH.
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            Idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus in adults: result of shunting correlated with clinical findings in 18 patients and review of the literature.

            The authors describe their findings in a study aimed at identifying clinical-prognostic factors in treatment of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus. The study comprised 18 adult patients submitted to surgery for ventriculo-peritoneal shunting. The findings that emerged from this series of patients were compared with those reported for the 381 published cases. In our group of 18 patients, average age was 65 years and the average duration of clinical history was 47 months (median 18 months). Follow-up ranged from 3 to 5 years (median 4.2 years): 12 patients improved (9 completely) and 6 presented stable neurological deficits. The factors that had a statistically significant influence on outcome were a short clinical history (less than 6 months) (p = 0.05) and a clinical onset without dementia (p = 0.03). Patients with medium-grade preoperative ventricular enlargement always made a complete functional recovery after surgery (p = 0.2).
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              Upper midbrain profile sign and cingulate sulcus sign: MRI findings on sagittal images in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus, Alzheimer's disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy.

              On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sagittal sections, we sometimes encounter abnormal aspects of the superior profile of the midbrain and the cingulate sulcus in patients with dementia. In this preliminary study, we refer to these findings as the "upper midbrain profile sign" and the "cingulate sulcus sign." We prospectively evaluated the usefulness of these signs for the diagnosis of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP).

                Author and article information

                Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
                Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
                S. Karger AG
                April 2008
                05 March 2008
                : 25
                : 4
                : 329-335
                Departments of aRadiology and Nuclear Medicine, and bNeurosurgery, cInstitute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Himeji, and dDepartment of Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuroscience, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
                119521 Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;25:329–335
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 18, Pages: 7
                Original Research Article

                Geriatric medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Neurosciences,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry,Public health
                Voxel-based morphometry,Magnetic resonance imaging,Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus,Alzheimer’s disease


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