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      Exosomes Secreted from Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevent Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head by Promoting Angiogenesis

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          Abstract

          Background: Local ischemia is the main pathological performance in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). There is currently no effective therapy to promote angiogenesis in the femoral head. Recent studies revealed that exosomes secreted by induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPS-MSC-Exos) have great therapeutic potential in ischemic tissues, but whether they could promote angiogenesis in ONFH has not been reported, and little is known regarding the underlying mechanism.

          Methods: iPS-MSC-Exos were intravenously injected to a steroid-induced rat osteonecrosis model. Samples of the femoral head were obtained 3 weeks after all the injections. The effects were assessed by measuring local angiogenesis and bone loss through histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, micro-CT and three-dimensional microangiography. The effects of exosomes on endothelial cells were studied through evaluations of proliferation, migration and tube-forming analyses. The expression levels of angiogenic related PI3K/Akt signaling pathway of endothelial cells were evaluated following stimulation of iPS-MSC-Exos. The promoting effects of exosomes were re-evaluated following blockade of PI3K/Akt.

          Results: The in vivo study revealed that administration of iPS-MSC-Exos significantly prevented bone loss, and increased microvessel density in the femoral head compared with control group. We found that iPS-MSC-Exos significantly enhanced the proliferation, migration and tube-forming capacities of endothelial cells in vitro. iPS-MSC-Exos could activate PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in endothelial cells. Moreover, the promoting effects of iPS-MSC-Exos were abolished after blockade of PI3K/Akt on endothelial cells.

          Conclusions: Our findings suggest that transplantation of iPS-MSC-Exos exerts a preventative effect on ONFH by promoting local angiogenesis and preventing bone loss. The promoting effect might be attributed to activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on endothelial cells. The data provide the first evidence for the potential of iPS-MSC-Exos in treating ONFH.

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          Most cited references29

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          Exosomes released from human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived MSCs facilitate cutaneous wound healing by promoting collagen synthesis and angiogenesis

          Background Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) have emerged as a promising alternative for stem cell transplantation therapy. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-Exos) can play important roles in repairing injured tissues. However, to date, no reports have demonstrated the use of hiPSC-MSC-Exos in cutaneous wound healing, and little is known regarding their underlying mechanisms in tissue repair. Methods hiPSC-MSC-Exos were injected subcutaneously around wound sites in a rat model and the efficacy of hiPSC-MSC-Exos was assessed by measuring wound closure areas, by histological and immunofluorescence examinations. We also evaluated the in vitro effects of hiPSC-MSC-Exos on both the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by cell-counting and scratch assays, respectively. The effects of exosomes on fibroblast collagen and elastin secretion were studied in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and quantitative reverse-transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In vitro capillary network formation was determined in tube-formation assays. Results Transplanting hiPSC-MSC-Exos to wound sites resulted in accelerated re-epithelialization, reduced scar widths, and the promotion of collagen maturity. Moreover, hiPSC-MSC-Exos not only promoted the generation of newly formed vessels, but also accelerated their maturation in wound sites. We found that hiPSC-MSC-Exos stimulated the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts and HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Similarly, Type I, III collagen and elastin secretion and mRNA expression by fibroblasts and tube formation by HUVECs were also increased with increasing hiPSC-MSC-Exos concentrations. Conclusions Our findings suggest that hiPSC-MSC-Exos can facilitate cutaneous wound healing by promoting collagen synthesis and angiogenesis. These data provide the first evidence for the potential of hiPSC-MSC-Exos in treating cutaneous wounds.
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            Exosomes: immune properties and potential clinical implementations.

            To communicate, cells are known to release in their environment proteins which bind to receptors on surrounding cells. But cells also secrete more complex structures, called membrane vesicles, composed of a lipid bilayer with inserted transmembrane proteins, enclosing an internal content of hydrophilic components. Exosomes represent a specific subclass of such secreted membrane vesicles, which, despite having been described more than 20 years ago by two groups studying reticulocyte maturation, have only recently received attention from the scientific community. This renewed interest originated first from the description of exosome secretion by antigen-presenting cells, suggesting a potential role in immune responses, and very recently by the identification of the presence of RNA (both messenger and microRNA) in exosomes, suggesting a potential transfer of genetic information between cells. In this review, we will describe the conclusions of 20 years of studies on the immune properties of exosomes and the most recent advances on their roles and potential uses as markers or as therapeutic tools during pathologies, especially in cancer.
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              Haematopoietic stem cells adopt mature haematopoietic fates in ischaemic myocardium.

              Under conditions of tissue injury, myocardial replication and regeneration have been reported. A growing number of investigators have implicated adult bone marrow (BM) in this process, suggesting that marrow serves as a reservoir for cardiac precursor cells. It remains unclear which BM cell(s) can contribute to myocardium, and whether they do so by transdifferentiation or cell fusion. Here, we studied the ability of c-kit-enriched BM cells, Lin- c-kit+ BM cells and c-kit+ Thy1.1(lo) Lin- Sca-1+ long-term reconstituting haematopoietic stem cells to regenerate myocardium in an infarct model. Cells were isolated from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and injected directly into ischaemic myocardium of wild-type mice. Abundant GFP+ cells were detected in the myocardium after 10 days, but by 30 days, few cells were detectable. These GFP+ cells did not express cardiac tissue-specific markers, but rather, most of them expressed the haematopoietic marker CD45 and myeloid marker Gr-1. We also studied the role of circulating cells in the repair of ischaemic myocardium using GFP+-GFP- parabiotic mice. Again, we found no evidence of myocardial regeneration from blood-borne partner-derived cells. Our data suggest that even in the microenvironment of the injured heart, c-kit-enriched BM cells, Lin- c-kit+ BM cells and c-kit+ Thy1.1(lo) Lin- Sca-1+ long-term reconstituting haematopoietic stem cells adopt only traditional haematopoietic fates.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Biol Sci
                Int. J. Biol. Sci
                ijbs
                International Journal of Biological Sciences
                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                1449-2288
                2017
                6 February 2017
                : 13
                : 2
                : 232-244
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Microsurgery on Extremities, Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, China.
                [2 ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, China.
                Author notes
                ✉ Corresponding authors: Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, China. Tel: +86-21-64369181. Fax: +86-21-64701361. Email addresses: wangyang63@ 123456sjtu.edu.cn (Y.Wang), liqing_236@ 123456aliyun.com (Q.Li).

                Conflicts of Interest: Xiaolin Liu, Qing Li, Xin Niu, Bin Hu, Shengbao Chen, Wenqi Song, Jian Ding, Changqing Zhang and Yang Wang declare that they have no conflict of interest.

                Article
                ijbsv13p0232
                10.7150/ijbs.16951
                5332877
                28255275
                23c98d65-c892-4df7-a23d-57671ebcc2b2
                © Ivyspring International Publisher

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.

                History
                : 23 July 2016
                : 1 December 2016
                Categories
                Research Paper

                Life sciences
                induced pluripotent stem cells (ipscs),exosomes,osteonecrosis,femoral head,angiogenesis.

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