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      A Phase-by-Phase Review of Migraine Pathophysiology : Supplement Article

      1
      Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
      Wiley

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          The global burden of headache: a documentation of headache prevalence and disability worldwide.

          This study, which is a part of the initiative 'Lifting The Burden: The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache Worldwide', assesses and presents all existing evidence of the world prevalence and burden of headache disorders. Population-based studies applying International Headache Society criteria for migraine and tension-type headache, and also studies on headache in general and 'chronic daily headache', have been included. Globally, the percentages of the adult population with an active headache disorder are 46% for headache in general, 11% for migraine, 42% for tension-type headache and 3% for chronic daily headache. Our calculations indicate that the disability attributable to tension-type headache is larger worldwide than that due to migraine. On the World Health Organization's ranking of causes of disability, this would bring headache disorders into the 10 most disabling conditions for the two genders, and into the five most disabling for women.
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            Pathophysiology of Migraine: A Disorder of Sensory Processing.

            Plaguing humans for more than two millennia, manifest on every continent studied, and with more than one billion patients having an attack in any year, migraine stands as the sixth most common cause of disability on the planet. The pathophysiology of migraine has emerged from a historical consideration of the "humors" through mid-20th century distraction of the now defunct Vascular Theory to a clear place as a neurological disorder. It could be said there are three questions: why, how, and when? Why: migraine is largely accepted to be an inherited tendency for the brain to lose control of its inputs. How: the now classical trigeminal durovascular afferent pathway has been explored in laboratory and clinic; interrogated with immunohistochemistry to functional brain imaging to offer a roadmap of the attack. When: migraine attacks emerge due to a disorder of brain sensory processing that itself likely cycles, influenced by genetics and the environment. In the first, premonitory, phase that precedes headache, brain stem and diencephalic systems modulating afferent signals, light-photophobia or sound-phonophobia, begin to dysfunction and eventually to evolve to the pain phase and with time the resolution or postdromal phase. Understanding the biology of migraine through careful bench-based research has led to major classes of therapeutics being identified: triptans, serotonin 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists; gepants, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists; ditans, 5-HT1F receptor agonists, CGRP mechanisms monoclonal antibodies; and glurants, mGlu5 modulators; with the promise of more to come. Investment in understanding migraine has been very successful and leaves us at a new dawn, able to transform its impact on a global scale, as well as understand fundamental aspects of human biology.
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              Migraine pathophysiology: anatomy of the trigeminovascular pathway and associated neurological symptoms, cortical spreading depression, sensitization, and modulation of pain.

              Scientific evidence supports the notion that migraine pathophysiology involves inherited alteration of brain excitability, intracranial arterial dilatation, recurrent activation, and sensitization of the trigeminovascular pathway, and consequential structural and functional changes in genetically susceptible individuals. Evidence of altered brain excitability emerged from clinical and preclinical investigation of sensory auras, ictal and interictal hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimulation, and reduced activation of descending inhibitory pain pathways. Data supporting the activation and sensitization of the trigeminovascular system include the progressive development of cephalic and whole-body cutaneous allodynia during a migraine attack. In addition, structural and functional alterations include the presence of subcortical white mater lesions, thickening of cortical areas involved in processing sensory information, and cortical neuroplastic changes induced by cortical spreading depression. Here, we review recent anatomical data on the trigeminovascular pathway and its activation by cortical spreading depression, a novel understanding of the neural substrate of migraine-type photophobia, and modulation of the trigeminovascular pathway by the brainstem, hypothalamus and cortex. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
                Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain
                Wiley
                00178748
                May 2018
                May 2018
                April 26 2018
                : 58
                : 4-16
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurology; Mayo Clinic; AZ USA
                Article
                10.1111/head.13300
                23cfe44d-64a7-47e8-86aa-0c412a9942de
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor


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