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      The evolutionary terrestrialization of planarian flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Geoplanidae): a review and research programme

      Zoosystematics and Evolution

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The terrestrialization of animal life from aquatic ancestors is a key transition during the history of life. Planarian flatworms form an ideal group of model organisms to study this colonization of the land because they have freshwater, marine, and terrestrial representatives. The widespread occurrence of terrestrial flatworms is a testament to their remarkable success occupying a new niche on land. This lineage of terrestrial worms provides a unique glimpse of an evolutionary pathway by which a group of early divergent aquatic, invertebrate metazoans has moved onto land. Land flatworms are among the first groups of animals to have evolved terrestrial adaptations and to have extensively radiated. Study of this terrestrialization process and the anatomical key innovations facilitating their colonization of the land will contribute greatly to our understanding of this important step in Metazoan history. The context and scientific background are reviewed regarding the evolutionary terrestrialization of land flatworms. Furthermore, a framework of a research programme is sketched, which has as its main objective to test hypotheses on the evolution of land planarians, specifically whether particular anatomical and physiological key innovations have contributed to their evolutionary successful terrestrial colonization and radiation. In this context special attention is paid to the respiration in aquatic and terrestrial planarians. The research programme depends on a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all major taxa of the land flatworms on the basis of both molecular and anatomical data. The data sets should be analyzed phylogenetically with a suite of phylogenetic inference methods. Building on such robust reconstructions, it will be possible to study associations between key innovations and the evolutionary terrestrialization process.

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          Most cited references 63

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          Bayesian analysis of correlated evolution of discrete characters by reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo.

          We describe a Bayesian method for investigating correlated evolution of discrete binary traits on phylogenetic trees. The method fits a continuous-time Markov model to a pair of traits, seeking the best fitting models that describe their joint evolution on a phylogeny. We employ the methodology of reversible-jump (RJ) Markov chain Monte Carlo to search among the large number of possible models, some of which conform to independent evolution of the two traits, others to correlated evolution. The RJ Markov chain visits these models in proportion to their posterior probabilities, thereby directly estimating the support for the hypothesis of correlated evolution. In addition, the RJ Markov chain simultaneously estimates the posterior distributions of the rate parameters of the model of trait evolution. These posterior distributions can be used to test among alternative evolutionary scenarios to explain the observed data. All results are integrated over a sample of phylogenetic trees to account for phylogenetic uncertainty. We implement the method in a program called RJ Discrete and illustrate it by analyzing the question of whether mating system and advertisement of estrus by females have coevolved in the Old World monkeys and great apes.
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            DAMBE6: New Tools for Microbial Genomics, Phylogenetics, and Molecular Evolution

             Xuhua Xia (2017)
            Abstract DAMBE is a comprehensive software workbench for data analysis in molecular biology, phylogenetics, and evolution. Several important new functions have been added since version 5 of DAMBE: 1) comprehensive genomic profiling of translation initiation efficiency of different genes in different prokaryotic species, 2) a new index of translation elongation (ITE) that takes into account both tRNA-mediated selection and background mutation on codon–anticodon adaptation, 3) a new and accurate phylogenetic approach based on pairwise alignment only, which is useful for highly divergent sequences from which a reliable multiple sequence alignment is difficult to obtain. Many other functions have been updated and improved including PWM for motif characterization, Gibbs sampler for de novo motif discovery, hidden Markov models for protein secondary structure prediction, self-organizing map for nonlinear clustering of transcriptomic data, comprehensive sequence alignment, and phylogenetic functions. DAMBE features a graphic, user-friendly and intuitive interface, and is freely available from http://dambe.bio.uottawa.ca.
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              POY version 4: phylogenetic analysis using dynamic homologies

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zoosystematics and Evolution
                ZSE
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-0743
                1435-1935
                September 29 2019
                September 29 2019
                : 95
                : 2
                : 543-556
                Article
                10.3897/zse.95.38727
                © 2019

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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