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Strain-specific bioaccumulation and intracellular distribution of Cd2+ in bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere, ectomycorrhizae, and fruitbodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi

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      Abstract

      Bioaccumulation of Cd 2+ in soil bacteria might represent an important route of metal transfer to associated mycorrhizal fungi and plants and may have potential as a tool to accelerate Cd 2+ extraction in the bioremediation of contaminated soils. The present study examined the bioaccumulation of Cd 2+ in 15 bacterial strains representing three phyla ( Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) that were isolated from the rhizosphere, ectomycorrhizae, and fruitbody of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The strains Pseudomonas sp. IV-111-14, Variovorax sp. ML3-12, and Luteibacter sp. II-116-7 displayed the highest biomass productivity at the highest tested Cd 2+ concentration (2 mM). Microscopic analysis of the cellular Cd distribution revealed intracellular accumulation by strains Massilia sp. III–116-18, Pseudomonas sp. IV-111-14, and Bacillus sp. ML1-2. The quantities of Cd measured in the interior of the cells ranged from 0.87 to 1.31 weight % Cd. Strains originating from the rhizosphere exhibited higher Cd 2+ accumulation efficiencies than strains from ectomycorrhizal roots or fruitbodies. The high Cd tolerances of Pseudomonas sp. IV-111-16 and Bacillus sp. ML1-2 were attributed to the binding of Cd 2+ as cadmium phosphate. Furthermore, silicate binding of Cd 2+ by Bacillus sp. ML1-2 was observed. The tolerance of Massilia sp. III-116-18 to Cd stress was attributed to a simultaneous increase in K + uptake in the presence of Cd 2+ ions. We conclude that highly Cd-tolerant and Cd-accumulating bacterial strains from the genera Massilia sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. might offer a suitable tool to improve the bioremediation efficiency of contaminated soils.

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      The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11356-014-3489-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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      The BLAST programs are widely used tools for searching protein and DNA databases for sequence similarities. For protein comparisons, a variety of definitional, algorithmic and statistical refinements described here permits the execution time of the BLAST programs to be decreased substantially while enhancing their sensitivity to weak similarities. A new criterion for triggering the extension of word hits, combined with a new heuristic for generating gapped alignments, yields a gapped BLAST program that runs at approximately three times the speed of the original. In addition, a method is introduced for automatically combining statistically significant alignments produced by BLAST into a position-specific score matrix, and searching the database using this matrix. The resulting Position-Specific Iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST) program runs at approximately the same speed per iteration as gapped BLAST, but in many cases is much more sensitive to weak but biologically relevant sequence similarities. PSI-BLAST is used to uncover several new and interesting members of the BRCT superfamily.
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        Microbial heavy-metal resistance.

        We are just beginning to understand the metabolism of heavy metals and to use their metabolic functions in biotechnology, although heavy metals comprise the major part of the elements in the periodic table. Because they can form complex compounds, some heavy metal ions are essential trace elements, but, essential or not, most heavy metals are toxic at higher concentrations. This review describes the workings of known metal-resistance systems in microorganisms. After an account of the basic principles of homoeostasis for all heavy-metal ions, the transport of the 17 most important (heavy metal) elements is compared.
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          Heavy metals such as Cu and Zn are essential for normal plant growth, although elevated concentrations of both essential and non-essential metals can result in growth inhibition and toxicity symptoms. Plants possess a range of potential cellular mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals and thus tolerance to metal stress. These include roles for the following: for mycorrhiza and for binding to cell wall and extracellular exudates; for reduced uptake or efflux pumping of metals at the plasma membrane; for chelation of metals in the cytosol by peptides such as phytochelatins; for the repair of stress-damaged proteins; and for the compartmentation of metals in the vacuole by tonoplast-located transporters. This review provides a broad overview of the evidence for an involvement of each mechanism in heavy metal detoxification and tolerance.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [ ]Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Lwowska 1, 89-100 Torun, Poland
            [ ]Chair of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Torun, Poland
            [ ]Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock, Germany
            [ ]Department of Cell Biology, Institute of General and Molecular Biology, N. Copernicus University of Torun, Torun, Poland
            Author notes

            Responsible editor: Robert Duran

            Contributors
            (+48)-56-61 14 447 , hrynk@umk.pl
            Journal
            Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
            Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
            Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
            Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
            0944-1344
            1614-7499
            19 September 2014
            19 September 2014
            2015
            : 22
            : 3055-3067
            25231735 4315882 3489 10.1007/s11356-014-3489-0
            © The Author(s) 2014

            Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

            Categories
            Research Article
            Custom metadata
            © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

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