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Strain-specific bioaccumulation and intracellular distribution of Cd2+ in bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere, ectomycorrhizae, and fruitbodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi

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      Bioaccumulation of Cd 2+ in soil bacteria might represent an important route of metal transfer to associated mycorrhizal fungi and plants and may have potential as a tool to accelerate Cd 2+ extraction in the bioremediation of contaminated soils. The present study examined the bioaccumulation of Cd 2+ in 15 bacterial strains representing three phyla ( Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) that were isolated from the rhizosphere, ectomycorrhizae, and fruitbody of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The strains Pseudomonas sp. IV-111-14, Variovorax sp. ML3-12, and Luteibacter sp. II-116-7 displayed the highest biomass productivity at the highest tested Cd 2+ concentration (2 mM). Microscopic analysis of the cellular Cd distribution revealed intracellular accumulation by strains Massilia sp. III–116-18, Pseudomonas sp. IV-111-14, and Bacillus sp. ML1-2. The quantities of Cd measured in the interior of the cells ranged from 0.87 to 1.31 weight % Cd. Strains originating from the rhizosphere exhibited higher Cd 2+ accumulation efficiencies than strains from ectomycorrhizal roots or fruitbodies. The high Cd tolerances of Pseudomonas sp. IV-111-16 and Bacillus sp. ML1-2 were attributed to the binding of Cd 2+ as cadmium phosphate. Furthermore, silicate binding of Cd 2+ by Bacillus sp. ML1-2 was observed. The tolerance of Massilia sp. III-116-18 to Cd stress was attributed to a simultaneous increase in K + uptake in the presence of Cd 2+ ions. We conclude that highly Cd-tolerant and Cd-accumulating bacterial strains from the genera Massilia sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. might offer a suitable tool to improve the bioremediation efficiency of contaminated soils.

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            Author and article information

            [ ]Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Lwowska 1, 89-100 Torun, Poland
            [ ]Chair of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Torun, Poland
            [ ]Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock, Germany
            [ ]Department of Cell Biology, Institute of General and Molecular Biology, N. Copernicus University of Torun, Torun, Poland
            Author notes

            Responsible editor: Robert Duran

            (+48)-56-61 14 447 ,
            Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
            Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
            Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
            Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
            19 September 2014
            19 September 2014
            : 22
            : 3055-3067
            25231735 4315882 3489 10.1007/s11356-014-3489-0
            © The Author(s) 2014

            Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

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            © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015


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