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      Strain-specific bioaccumulation and intracellular distribution of Cd 2+ in bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere, ectomycorrhizae, and fruitbodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi

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          Bioaccumulation of Cd 2+ in soil bacteria might represent an important route of metal transfer to associated mycorrhizal fungi and plants and may have potential as a tool to accelerate Cd 2+ extraction in the bioremediation of contaminated soils. The present study examined the bioaccumulation of Cd 2+ in 15 bacterial strains representing three phyla ( Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) that were isolated from the rhizosphere, ectomycorrhizae, and fruitbody of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The strains Pseudomonas sp. IV-111-14, Variovorax sp. ML3-12, and Luteibacter sp. II-116-7 displayed the highest biomass productivity at the highest tested Cd 2+ concentration (2 mM). Microscopic analysis of the cellular Cd distribution revealed intracellular accumulation by strains Massilia sp. III–116-18, Pseudomonas sp. IV-111-14, and Bacillus sp. ML1-2. The quantities of Cd measured in the interior of the cells ranged from 0.87 to 1.31 weight % Cd. Strains originating from the rhizosphere exhibited higher Cd 2+ accumulation efficiencies than strains from ectomycorrhizal roots or fruitbodies. The high Cd tolerances of Pseudomonas sp. IV-111-16 and Bacillus sp. ML1-2 were attributed to the binding of Cd 2+ as cadmium phosphate. Furthermore, silicate binding of Cd 2+ by Bacillus sp. ML1-2 was observed. The tolerance of Massilia sp. III-116-18 to Cd stress was attributed to a simultaneous increase in K + uptake in the presence of Cd 2+ ions. We conclude that highly Cd-tolerant and Cd-accumulating bacterial strains from the genera Massilia sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. might offer a suitable tool to improve the bioremediation efficiency of contaminated soils.

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          The BLAST programs are widely used tools for searching protein and DNA databases for sequence similarities. For protein comparisons, a variety of definitional, algorithmic and statistical refinements described here permits the execution time of the BLAST programs to be decreased substantially while enhancing their sensitivity to weak similarities. A new criterion for triggering the extension of word hits, combined with a new heuristic for generating gapped alignments, yields a gapped BLAST program that runs at approximately three times the speed of the original. In addition, a method is introduced for automatically combining statistically significant alignments produced by BLAST into a position-specific score matrix, and searching the database using this matrix. The resulting Position-Specific Iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST) program runs at approximately the same speed per iteration as gapped BLAST, but in many cases is much more sensitive to weak but biologically relevant sequence similarities. PSI-BLAST is used to uncover several new and interesting members of the BRCT superfamily.
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              The mobilization of heavy metals by man through extraction from ores and processing for different applications has led to the release of these elements into the environment. Since heavy metals are nonbiodegradable, they accumulate in the environment and subsequently contaminate the food chain. This contamination poses a risk to environmental and human health. Some heavy metals are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and endocrine disruptors while others cause neurological and behavioral changes especially in children. Thus remediation of heavy metal pollution deserves due attention. Different physical and chemical methods used for this purpose suffer from serious limitations like high cost, intensive labor, alteration of soil properties and disturbance of soil native microflora. In contrast, phytoremediation is a better solution to the problem. Phytoremediation is the use of plants and associated soil microbes to reduce the concentrations or toxic effects of contaminants in the environments. It is a relatively recent technology and is perceived as cost-effective, efficient, novel, eco-friendly, and solar-driven technology with good public acceptance. Phytoremediation is an area of active current research. New efficient metal hyperaccumulators are being explored for applications in phytoremediation and phytomining. Molecular tools are being used to better understand the mechanisms of metal uptake, translocation, sequestration and tolerance in plants. This review article comprehensively discusses the background, concepts and future trends in phytoremediation of heavy metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                (+48)-56-61 14 447 ,
                Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
                Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
                Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                19 September 2014
                19 September 2014
                : 22
                : 3055-3067
                [ ]Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Lwowska 1, 89-100 Torun, Poland
                [ ]Chair of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Torun, Poland
                [ ]Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock, Germany
                [ ]Department of Cell Biology, Institute of General and Molecular Biology, N. Copernicus University of Torun, Torun, Poland
                Author notes

                Responsible editor: Robert Duran

                © The Author(s) 2014

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

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                © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015


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