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      Prior Cytomegalovirus Infection Does Not Predict Clinical Outcome after Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty


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          Background: A direct association between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and the development of restenosis after coronary angioplasty has been suggested. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the value of HCMV serology in predicting the clinical outcome after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Methods and Results: 112 patients undergoing elective PTCA were included in the study. HCMV antibody levels were measured by ELISA. Cardiac events within a follow-up period of 6 months after PTCA were defined as (1) progression or recurrence of anginal complaints and/or a positive exercise test; (2) restenosis that required repeat revascularization. 73% of PTCA patients were seropositive for HCMV. Successful PTCA was achieved in a total of 94 patients, who were followed for 6 months. In 31/94 patients (33%) cardiac events occurred and in 15/94 (16%), this could be related to restenosis. We found no statistically significant difference between seropositive and negative patients with respect to anginal complaints or the need for revascularization. There was no evidence of acute reactivation, since titers of anti-HCMV antibodies did not increase after PTCA. Conclusion: This study shows that the clinical outcome after PTCA is not related to the HCMV serostatus of the patient. Therefore, our data do not support the hypothesis that serological markers of HCMV infection are of clinical importance for the assessment of a patient’s individual risk after PTCA. This does not preclude a role for local reactivation of HCMV at the site of angioplasty.

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          Association between prior cytomegalovirus infection and the risk of restenosis after coronary atherectomy.

          Restenosis occurs commonly after coronary angioplasty and atherectomy, but the causes of restenosis are poorly understood. Recently, it has been found that cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA is present in restenotic lesions from atherectomy specimens. This and other evidence suggest that CMV may have a role in the process of restenosis. We prospectively studied 75 consecutive patients undergoing directional coronary atherectomy for symptomatic coronary artery disease. Before atherectomy was performed, we measured blood levels of anti-CMV IgG antibodies to determine whether previous exposure to CMV increased the risk of restenosis, as determined by coronary angiography performed six months after atherectomy. After atherectomy, the mean (+/- SD) minimal luminal diameter of the target vessel was greater in the 49 patients who were seropositive for CMV than in the 26 patients who were seronegative (3.18 +/- 0.51 mm vs. 2.89 +/- 0.45 mm, P=0.01). After six months, however, the seropositive patients had a greater reduction in the luminal diameter (1.24 +/- 0.83 mm vs. 0.68 +/- 0.69 mm, P = 0.003), resulting in a significantly higher rate o restenosis in the seropositive patients (43 percent vs. 8 percent, P = 0.002). In a multivariable logistic-regression model, CMV seropositivity and the CMV titer were independently predictive of restenosis (odds ratios, 12.9 and 8.1, respectively). There was no evidence of acute infection, since the titer of anti-CMV IgG antibodies did not increase over time and tests for anti-CMV IgM antibodies were negative in all patients. Prior infection with CMV is strong independent risk factor for restenosis after coronary atherectomy. If confirmed, these findings may help identify patients at risk for restenosis.
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            A comparison of directional atherectomy with coronary angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease. The CAVEAT Study Group.

            Directional coronary atherectomy is a new technique of coronary revascularization by which atherosclerotic plaque is excised and retrieved from target lesions. With respect to the rate of restenosis and clinical outcomes, it is not known how this procedure compares with balloon angioplasty, which relies on dilation of the plaque and vessel wall. We compared the rate of restenosis after angioplasty with that after atherectomy. At 35 sites in the United States and Europe, 1012 patients were randomly assigned to either atherectomy (512 patients) or angioplasty (500 patients). The patients underwent coronary angiography at base line and again after six months; the paired angiograms were quantitatively assessed at one laboratory by investigators unaware of the treatment assignments. Stenosis was reduced to 50 percent or less more often with atherectomy than with angioplasty (89 percent vs. 80 percent; P < 0.001), and there was a greater immediate increase in vessel caliber (1.05 vs. 0.86 mm, P < 0.001). This was accompanied by a higher rate of early complications (11 percent vs. 5 percent, P < 0.001) and higher in-hospital costs ($11,904 vs $10,637; P = 0.006). At six months, the rate of restenosis was 50 percent for atherectomy and 57 percent for angioplasty (P = 0.06). However, the probability of death or myocardial infarction within six months was higher in the atherectomy group (8.6 percent vs. 4.6 percent, P = 0.007). Removing coronary artery plaque with atherectomy led to a larger luminal diameter and a small reduction in angiographic restenosis, the latter being confined largely to the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. However, atherectomy led to a higher rate of early complications, increased cost, and no apparent clinical benefit after six months of follow-up.
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              Cytomegalovirus infection is associated with cardiac allograft rejection and atherosclerosis


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                March 1999
                22 March 1999
                : 90
                : 4
                : 263-268
                Departments of a Clinical Immunology and b Cardiology, University of Groningen, The Netherlands; c Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Graz, Austria
                6856 Cardiology 1998;90:263–268
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 23, Pages: 6
                Invasive and Interventional Care

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Angioplasty,Cytomegalovirus,Restenosis,Clinical outcome


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