0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
2 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Invasive ants reduce nesting success of an endangered Hawaiian yellow-faced bee, Hylaeus anthracinus

      , , ,

      NeoBiota

      Pensoft Publishers

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Hawaii has a single group of native bees belonging to the genus Hylaeus (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) and known collectively as Hawaiian yellow-faced bees. The majority of the 63 species have experienced significant declines in range and population. In 2016, seven species received federal protection under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Competitors and predators, such as invasive bees, wasps and ants, are thought to be important drivers of range reductions and population declines, especially at lower elevations where more non-native species occur. We evaluated the effects of invasive ants on nesting Hylaeus anthracinus using artificial nest blocks that allowed us to track nest construction and development. The blocks were placed in pairs at 22 points encompassing three sites on the north and east sides of Oahu. One block in each pair was treated with a sticky barrier to prevent access by ants, while the other block remained untreated. From December 2015 to December 2016, we monitored 961 individual nests in the blocks. Seventy percent of nests in control blocks were invaded by ants. Nests in treated blocks were more likely to produce at least one adult than nests in untreated blocks (38% vs. 14%, respectively). In untreated blocks, ants were the most common cause of nest mortality followed by lack of development, displacement (primarily by the competitor Pachodynerus nasidens) and presumed pathogens. The invasive ant, Ochetellus glaber was the only observed nest predator, although the big-headed ant, Pheidole megacephala was also present. Hylaeus anthracinus inhabits coastal strand habitat which occurs in a narrow band just above the high tide line. Nests at one site were destroyed due to a high wave event, highlighting this species’ vulnerability to sea level rise. Additionally, no adult bees or nests were observed at the points where yellow crazy ants, Anoplolepis gracilipes were established. An increased understanding of the factors limiting Hawaii’s yellow-faced bees will provide information for future conservation efforts that may include landscape-scale ant control, habitat restoration and translocations.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 21

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Pollen foraging behaviour of solitary Hawaiian bees revealed through molecular pollen analysis.

          Obtaining quantitative information concerning pollinator behaviour has become a primary objective of pollination studies, but methodological limitations hinder progress towards this goal. Here, we use molecular genetic methods in an ecological context to demonstrate that endemic Hawaiian Hylaeus bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) selectively collect pollen from native plant species in Haleakala and Hawaii Volcanoes National Parks. We identified pollen DNA from the crops (internal storage organs) of 21 Hylaeus specimens stored in ethanol for up to 3 years. Genetic analyses reveal high fidelity in pollen foraging despite the availability of pollen from multiple plant species present at each study site. At high elevations in Haleakala, pollen was available from more than 12 species of flowering plants, but Hawaiian silversword (Argyroxiphium sandwicense subsp. macrocephalum) comprised 86% of all pollen samples removed from bee crops. At lower elevations in both parks, we only detected pukiawe (Leptecophylla (Styphelia) tameiameiae) pollen in Hylaeus crops despite the presence of other plant species in flower during our study. Furthermore, 100% of Hylaeus crops from which we successfully identified pollen contained native plant pollen. The molecular approaches developed in this study provide species-level information about floral visitation of Hawaiian Hylaeus that does not require specialized palynological expertise needed for high-throughput visual pollen identification. Building upon this approach, future studies can thus develop appropriate and customized criteria for assessing mixed pollen loads from a broader range of sources and from other global regions. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Mitochondrial heteroplasmy and DNA barcoding in Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)

            Background The past several years have seen a flurry of papers seeking to clarify the utility and limits of DNA barcoding, particularly in areas such as species discovery and paralogy due to nuclear pseudogenes. Heteroplasmy, the coexistence of multiple mitochondrial haplotypes in a single organism, has been cited as a potentially serious problem for DNA barcoding but its effect on identification accuracy has not been tested. In addition, few studies of barcoding have tested a large group of closely-related species with a well-established morphological taxonomy. In this study we examine both of these issues, by densely sampling the Hawaiian Hylaeus bee radiation. Results Individuals from 21 of the 49 a priori morphologically-defined species exhibited coding sequence heteroplasmy at levels of 1-6% or more. All homoplasmic species were successfully identified by COI using standard methods of analysis, but only 71% of heteroplasmic species. The success rate in identifying heteroplasmic species was increased to 86% by treating polymorphisms as character states rather than ambiguities. Nuclear pseudogenes (numts) were also present in four species, and were distinguishable from heteroplasmic sequences by patterns of nucleotide and amino acid change. Conclusions Heteroplasmy significantly decreased the reliability of species identification. In addition, the practical issue of dealing with large numbers of polymorphisms- and resulting increased time and labor required - makes the development of DNA barcode databases considerably more complex than has previously been suggested. The impact of heteroplasmy on the utility of DNA barcoding as a bulk specimen identification tool will depend upon its frequency across populations, which remains unknown. However, DNA barcoding is still likely to remain an important identification tool for those species that are difficult or impossible to identify through morphology, as is the case for the ecologically important solitary bee fauna.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Multiple mechanisms underlie displacement of solitary Hawaiian Hymenoptera by an invasive social wasp.

              Variation in invasion success may result from the divergent evolutionary histories of introduced species compared to those of native taxa. The vulnerability of native biotas to ecological disruption may be especially great on oceanic islands invaded by continental species with unique ecological traits. In part because Hawaii lacks native eusocial insects, social invaders may threaten endemic taxa that are ecologically similar but solitary. Using a combination of field manipulations, molecular analyses, physiological data, and behavioral assays, we identify the mechanisms underlying the displacement of two genera of native solitary Hymenoptera in Hawaii by a social continental invader, the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica). Experimental removal of V. pensylvanica colonies resulted in increased densities of native Hymenoptera. Endemic Hylaeus bees directly suffer through predation by yellowjackets, and perhaps as a consequence, avoid floral resources occupied by V. pensylvanica. Native Nesodynerus wasps also avoid V. pensylvanica but are negatively affected by yellowjackets not through predation, but through exploitative competition for caterpillar prey. Displacement of native solitary Hymenoptera may be heightened by the ability of V. pensylvanica to prey upon and scavenge honey bees and to rob their honey stores, resources unavailable to endemic bees and wasps because of their specialized niches. Our study provides a unique example of an ecologically generalized social invader that restructures native assemblages of solitary Hymenoptera by interacting with endemic taxa on multiple trophic levels.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                NeoBiota
                NB
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2488
                1619-0033
                January 28 2021
                January 28 2021
                : 64
                : 137-154
                Article
                10.3897/neobiota.64.58670
                © 2021

                Comments

                Comment on this article