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      Use of clinical characteristics to predict spirometric classification of obstructive lung disease

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          Abstract

          Background

          There is no consensus on how to define patients with symptoms of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A diagnosis of asthma–COPD overlap (ACO) syndrome has been proposed, but its value is debated. This study (GSK Study 201703 [NCT02302417]) investigated the ability of statistical modeling approaches to define distinct disease groups in patients with obstructive lung disease (OLD) using medical history and spirometric data.

          Methods

          Patients aged ≥18 years with diagnoses of asthma and/or COPD were categorized into three groups: 1) asthma (nonobstructive; reversible), 2) ACO (obstructive; reversible), and 3) COPD (obstructive; nonreversible). Obstruction was defined as a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1)/forced vital capacity <0.7, and reversibility as a post-albuterol increase in FEV 1 ≥200 mL and ≥12%. A primary model (PM), based on patients’ responses to a health care practitioner-administered questionnaire, was developed using multinomial logistic regression modeling. Other multivariate statistical analysis models for identifying asthma and COPD as distinct entities were developed and assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) assessed the degree of overlap between groups.

          Results

          The PM predicted spirometric classifications with modest sensitivity. Other analysis models performed with high discrimination (area under the ROC curve: asthma model, 0.94; COPD model, 0.87). PLS-DA identified distinct phenotypic groups corresponding to asthma and COPD.

          Conclusion

          Within the OLD spectrum, patients with asthma or COPD can be identified as two distinct groups with a high degree of precision. Patients outside these classifications do not constitute a homogeneous group.

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          Most cited references 22

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          The clinical features of the overlap between COPD and asthma

          Background The coexistence of COPD and asthma is widely recognized but has not been well described. This study characterizes clinical features, spirometry, and chest CT scans of smoking subjects with both COPD and asthma. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study comparing subjects with COPD and asthma to subjects with COPD alone in the COPDGene Study. Results 119 (13%) of 915 subjects with COPD reported a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These subjects were younger (61.3 vs 64.7 years old, p = 0.0001) with lower lifetime smoking intensity (43.7 vs 55.1 pack years, p = 0.0001). More African-Americans reported a history of asthma (33.6% vs 15.6%, p < 0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated worse disease-related quality of life, were more likely to have had a severe COPD exacerbation in the past year, and were more likely to experience frequent exacerbations (OR 3.55 [2.19, 5.75], p < 0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated greater gas-trapping on chest CT. There were no differences in spirometry or CT measurements of emphysema or airway wall thickness. Conclusion Subjects with COPD and asthma represent a relevant clinical population, with worse health-related quality of life. They experience more frequent and severe respiratory exacerbations despite younger age and reduced lifetime smoking history. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00608764
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            Increased risk of exacerbation and hospitalization in subjects with an overlap phenotype: COPD-asthma.

            Several COPD phenotypes have been described; the COPD-asthma overlap is one of the most recognized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of three subgroups (asthma, COPD, and COPD-asthma overlap) in the Latin American Project for the Investigation of Obstructive Lung Disease (PLATINO) study population, to describe their main characteristics, and to determine the association of the COPD-asthma overlap group with exacerbations, hospitalizations, limitations due to physical health, and perception of general health status (GHS). The PLATINO study is a multicenter population-based survey carried out in five Latin American cities. Outcomes were self-reported exacerbations (defined by deterioration of breathing symptoms that affected usual daily activities or caused missed work), hospitalizations due to exacerbations, physical health limitations, and patients' perception of their GHS obtained by questionnaire. Subjects were classified in three specific groups: COPD--a postbronchodilator (post-BD) FEV₁/FVC ratio of < 0.70; asthma--presence of wheezing in the last year and a minimum post-BD increase in FEV₁ or FVC of 12% and 200 mL; and overlap COPD-asthma--the combination of the two. Out of 5,044 subjects, 767 were classified as having COPD (12%), asthma (1.7%), and COPD-asthma overlap (1.8%). Subjects with COPD-asthma overlap had more respiratory symptoms, had worse lung function, used more respiratory medication, had more hospitalization and exacerbations, and had worse GHS. After adjusting for confounders, the COPD-asthma overlap was associated with higher risks for exacerbations (prevalence ratio [PR], 2.11; 95% CI, 1.08-4.12), hospitalizations (PR, 4.11; 95% CI, 1.45-11.67), and worse GHS (PR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.18-1.85) compared with those with COPD. The coexisting COPD-asthma phenotype is possibly associated with increased disease severity.
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              Overlap syndrome of asthma and COPD predicts low quality of life.

              In clinical practice, patients whose airway disease shares features of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain poorly recognized. The study population consisted of 1546 patients with a diagnosis of asthma or COPD or both. Based on patient-reported outcomes and retrospective medical record data, the study population was divided into three groups: ( 1 ) asthma only, ( 2 ) COPD only, and ( 3 ) both asthma and COPD (overlap syndrome group). We evaluated patient characteristics associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In many respects, the overlap group fell between the asthma and COPD groups. In the overlap group, however, HRQoL was the poorest of all. In the logistic regression model, with the asthma group as the reference, both the overlap and the COPD group showed higher risk for low HRQoL [odd ratio (OR): 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-3.2; and OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.2; respectively]. In addition, female gender, obesity, duration of disease, disability pension, and coexisting cardiovascular disease were associated with low HRQoL across the study population. Patients with overlapping asthma and COPD differed from those patients with asthma or COPD only. Overlap syndrome was associated with low HRQoL.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2018
                12 March 2018
                : 13
                : 889-902
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Respiratory Medicines Development Center, GSK, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
                [2 ]Biostatistics, PAREXEL International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
                [3 ]Clinical Statistics, GSK, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
                [4 ]Value Evidence and Outcomes, GSK, Collegeville, PA, USA
                [5 ]Epidemiology, GSK, Collegeville, PA, USA
                [6 ]Research and Development, GSK, Stevenage, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Steven J Pascoe, Respiratory Medicines Development Center, GSK, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA, Tel +1 919 491 8859, Email steven.j.pascoe@ 123456gsk.com
                Article
                copd-13-889
                10.2147/COPD.S153426
                5856300
                © 2018 Pascoe et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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