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      Dapagliflozin in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction

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      New England Journal of Medicine
      Massachusetts Medical Society

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          Abstract

          In patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-independent mechanisms. More data are needed regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with established heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes.

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          SGLT2 inhibitors and mechanisms of cardiovascular benefit: a state-of-the-art review

          Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT)2 inhibitors have been demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular events, particularly heart failure, in cardiovascular outcome trials. Here, we review the proposed mechanistic underpinnings of this benefit. Specifically, we focus on the role of SGLT2 inhibitors in optimising ventricular loading conditions through their effect on diuresis and natriuresis, in addition to reducing afterload and improving vascular structure and function. Further insights into the role of SGLT2 inhibition in myocardial metabolism and substrate utilisation are outlined. Finally, we discuss two emerging themes: how SGLT2 inhibitors may regulate Na+/H+ exchange at the level of the heart and kidney and how they may modulate adipokine production. The mechanistic discussion is placed in the context of completed and ongoing trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in the prevention and treatment of heart failure in individuals with and without diabetes.
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            Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibition in Heart Failure

            Despite current established therapy, heart failure (HF) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. Novel therapeutic targets are therefore needed to improve the prognosis of patients with HF. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial ([Empagliflozin] Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients) demonstrated significant reductions in mortality and HF hospitalization risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease with the antihyperglycemic agent, empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. The CANVAS trial (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study) subsequently reported a reduction in 3-point major adverse cardiovascular events and HF hospitalization risk. Although SGLT2 inhibition may have potential application beyond T2D, including HF, the mechanisms responsible for the cardioprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors remain incompletely understood. SGLT2 inhibition promotes natriuresis and osmotic diuresis, leading to plasma volume contraction and reduced preload, and decreases in blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and afterload as well, thereby improving subendocardial blood flow in patients with HF. SGLT2 inhibition is also associated with preservation of renal function. Based on data from mechanistic studies and clinical trials, large clinical trials with SGLT2 inhibitors are now investigating the potential use of SGLT2 inhibition in patients who have HF with and without T2D. Accordingly, in this review, we summarize the key pharmacodynamic effects of SGLT2 inhibitors and the clinical evidence that support the rationale for the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with HF who have T2D. Because these favorable effects presumably occur independent of blood glucose lowering, we also explore the potential use of SGLT2 inhibition in patients without T2D with HF or at risk of HF, such as in patients with coronary artery disease or hypertension. Finally, we provide a detailed overview and summary of ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials with SGLT2 inhibitors.
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              Semiparametric regression for the mean and rate functions of recurrent events

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                September 19 2019
                September 19 2019
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (J.J.V.M., M.C.P., K.F.D., P.S.J.); the Cardiovascular Division (S.D.S., A.S.D.) and the TIMI Study Group, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School (M.S.S.) — all in Boston; Section of Endocrinology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (S.E.I.); Rigshospitalet Copenhagen University Hospital (L.K.) and the Department of Cardiology, Gentofte University Hospital (M. Schou), Copenhagen;...
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1911303
                31535829
                23fdcfda-8cce-453e-a368-72ff23aebc31
                © 2019

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