We followed the renal and hormonal effects of physiological intravenous infusions of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in 6 water-loaded patients with nephrotic syndrome and 7 healthy subjects. Two of the patients had impaired renal function, 3 had active sodium retention, and none took drugs. The ensuing natriuresis, increase in plasma and urinary cyclic guanosine monophosphate and suppression of the renin-aldosterone axis were similar in normals and nephrotics. In both groups, significant increases in filtration fraction (inulin/PAH clearance) were observed, and in the nephrotics, major increases also occured in both the absolute and fractional urinary albumin excretion. The renal and hormonal responses to ANF are not impaired in the nephrotic syndrome.