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      A hands-on guide to doing content analysis

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          Abstract

          There is a growing recognition for the important role played by qualitative research and its usefulness in many fields, including the emergency care context in Africa. Novice qualitative researchers are often daunted by the prospect of qualitative data analysis and thus may experience much difficulty in the data analysis process. Our objective with this manuscript is to provide a practical hands-on example of qualitative content analysis to aid novice qualitative researchers in their task.

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          Most cited references 10

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          The use of triangulation in qualitative research.

          Triangulation refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena (Patton, 1999). Triangulation also has been viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) identified four types of triangulation: (a) method triangulation, (b) investigator triangulation, (c) theory triangulation, and (d) data source triangulation. The current article will present the four types of triangulation followed by a discussion of the use of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth individual (IDI) interviews as an example of data source triangulation in qualitative inquiry.
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            Analysing and presenting qualitative data.

            This paper provides a pragmatic approach to analysing qualitative data, using actual data from a qualitative dental public health study for demonstration purposes. The paper also critically explores how computers can be used to facilitate this process, the debate about the verification (validation) of qualitative analyses and how to write up and present qualitative research studies.
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              Qualitative Content Analysis

              The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability). Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of categories and deductive application of categories, are worked out. The possibilities of computer programs in supporting those qualitative steps of analysis are shown and the possibilities and limits of the approach are discussed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002204 Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, Vol 1, No 2 (2000): Qualitative Methods in Various Disciplines I: Psychology
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Afr J Emerg Med
                Afr J Emerg Med
                African Journal of Emergency Medicine
                African Federation for Emergency Medicine
                2211-419X
                2211-4203
                21 August 2017
                September 2017
                21 August 2017
                : 7
                : 3
                : 93-99
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar 391 82, Sweden
                [b ]School of Nursing & Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. christen.erlingsson@ 123456lnu.se
                Article
                S2211-419X(17)30042-3
                10.1016/j.afjem.2017.08.001
                6234169
                30456117
                © 2017 African Federation for Emergency Medicine. Publishing services provided by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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