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      Hypercapnia increases airway smooth muscle contractility via caspase-7–mediated miR-133a–RhoA signaling

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          Abstract

          The elevation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in tissues and the bloodstream (hypercapnia) occurs in patients with severe lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whereas hypercapnia has been recognized as a marker of COPD severity, a role for hypercapnia in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. We provide evidence that CO2 acts as a signaling molecule in mouse and human airway smooth muscle cells. High CO2 activated calcium-calpain signaling and consequent smooth muscle cell contraction in mouse airway smooth muscle cells. The signaling was mediated by caspase-7–induced down-regulation of the microRNA-133a (miR-133a) and consequent up-regulation of Ras homolog family member A and myosin light-chain phosphorylation. Exposure of wild-type, but not caspase-7–null, mice to hypercapnia increased airway contraction and resistance. Deletion of the Caspase-7 gene prevented hypercapnia-induced airway contractility, which was restored by lentiviral transfection of a miR-133a antagonist. In a cohort of patients with severe COPD, hypercapnic patients had higher airway resistance, which improved after correction of hypercapnia. Our data suggest a specific molecular mechanism by which the development of hypercapnia may drive COPD pathogenesis and progression.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network.

          Traditional approaches to mechanical ventilation use tidal volumes of 10 to 15 ml per kilogram of body weight and may cause stretch-induced lung injury in patients with acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. We therefore conducted a trial to determine whether ventilation with lower tidal volumes would improve the clinical outcomes in these patients. Patients with acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized trial. The trial compared traditional ventilation treatment, which involved an initial tidal volume of 12 ml per kilogram of predicted body weight and an airway pressure measured after a 0.5-second pause at the end of inspiration (plateau pressure) of 50 cm of water or less, with ventilation with a lower tidal volume, which involved an initial tidal volume of 6 ml per kilogram of predicted body weight and a plateau pressure of 30 cm of water or less. The primary outcomes were death before a patient was discharged home and was breathing without assistance and the number of days without ventilator use from day 1 to day 28. The trial was stopped after the enrollment of 861 patients because mortality was lower in the group treated with lower tidal volumes than in the group treated with traditional tidal volumes (31.0 percent vs. 39.8 percent, P=0.007), and the number of days without ventilator use during the first 28 days after randomization was greater in this group (mean [+/-SD], 12+/-11 vs. 10+/-11; P=0.007). The mean tidal volumes on days 1 to 3 were 6.2+/-0.8 and 11.8+/-0.8 ml per kilogram of predicted body weight (P<0.001), respectively, and the mean plateau pressures were 25+/-6 and 33+/-8 cm of water (P<0.001), respectively. In patients with acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation with a lower tidal volume than is traditionally used results in decreased mortality and increases the number of days without ventilator use.
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            Interpretative strategies for lung function tests.

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              Calcium signalling: dynamics, homeostasis and remodelling.

              Ca2+ is a highly versatile intracellular signal that operates over a wide temporal range to regulate many different cellular processes. An extensive Ca2+-signalling toolkit is used to assemble signalling systems with very different spatial and temporal dynamics. Rapid highly localized Ca2+ spikes regulate fast responses, whereas slower responses are controlled by repetitive global Ca2+ transients or intracellular Ca2+ waves. Ca2+ has a direct role in controlling the expression patterns of its signalling systems that are constantly being remodelled in both health and disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science Translational Medicine
                Sci. Transl. Med.
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                1946-6234
                1946-6242
                September 05 2018
                September 05 2018
                September 05 2018
                September 05 2018
                : 10
                : 457
                : eaat1662
                Article
                10.1126/scitranslmed.aat1662
                © 2018

                http://www.sciencemag.org/about/science-licenses-journal-article-reuse

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