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      The Effect of Whey Protein Supplementation on the Temporal Recovery of Muscle Function Following Resistance Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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          Abstract

          Whey protein (WP) is a widely consumed nutritional supplement, known to enhance strength and muscle mass during resistance training (RT) regimens. Muscle protein anabolism is acutely elevated following RT, which is further enhanced by WP. As a result, there is reason to suggest that WP supplementation may be an effective nutritional strategy for restoring the acute loss of contractile function that occurs following strenuous RT. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides a synthesis of the literature to date, investigating the effect of WP supplementation on the recovery of contractile function in young, healthy adults. Eight studies, containing 13 randomised control trials (RCTs) were included in this review and meta-analysis, from which individual standardised effect sizes (ESs) were calculated, and a temporal overall ES was determined using a random-effects model. Whilst only half of the individual studies reported beneficial effects for WP, the high-quality evidence taken from the 13 RCTs was meta-analysed, yielding overall positive small to medium effects for WP from < 24 to 96 h (ES range = 0.4 to 0.7), for the temporal restoration of contractile function compared to the control treatment. Whilst the effects for WP were shown to be consistent over time, these results are limited to 13 RCTs, principally supporting the requirement for further comprehensive research in this area.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Rapid aminoacidemia enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis and anabolic intramuscular signaling responses after resistance exercise.

          Ingestion of whey or casein yields divergent patterns of aminoacidemia that influence whole-body and skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) after exercise. Direct comparisons of the effects of contrasting absorption rates exhibited by these proteins are confounded by their differing amino acid contents. Our objective was to determine the effect of divergent aminoacidemia by manipulating ingestion patterns of whey protein alone on MPS and anabolic signaling after resistance exercise. In separate trials, 8 healthy men consumed whey protein either as a single bolus (BOLUS; 25-g dose) or as repeated, small, "pulsed" drinks (PULSE; ten 2.5-g drinks every 20 min) to mimic a more slowly digested protein. MPS and phosphorylation of signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis were measured at rest and after resistance exercise. BOLUS increased blood essential amino acid (EAA) concentrations above those of PULSE (162% compared with 53%, P < 0.001) 60 min after exercise, whereas PULSE resulted in a smaller but sustained increase in aminoacidemia that remained elevated above BOLUS amounts later (180-220 min after exercise, P < 0.05). Despite an identical net area under the EAA curve, MPS was elevated to a greater extent after BOLUS than after PULSE early (1-3 h: 95% compared with 42%) and later (3-5 h: 193% compared with 121%) (both P < 0.05). There were greater changes in the phosphorylation of the Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway after BOLUS than after PULSE. Rapid aminoacidemia in the postexercise period enhances MPS and anabolic signaling to a greater extent than an identical amount of protein fed in small pulses that mimic a more slowly digested protein. A pronounced peak aminoacidemia after exercise enhances protein synthesis. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01319513.
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            Effect of caffeine ingestion on muscular strength and endurance: a meta-analysis.

            Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the research literature assessing the effect of caffeine ingestion on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) strength and muscular endurance. Thirty-four relevant studies between 1939 and 2008 were included in the meta-analyses of caffeine's effects on MVC strength (n = 27 studies) and muscular endurance (n = 23 studies). Effect sizes (ES) were calculated as the standardized mean difference and meta-analyses were completed using a random-effects model. Overall, caffeine ingestion was found to result in a small beneficial effect on MVC strength (overall ES = 0.19, P = 0.0003). However, caffeine appears to improve MVC strength primarily in the knee extensors (i.e., by approximately 7%, ES = 0.37) and not in other muscle groups such as the forearm or the knee flexors. In an attempt to offer a physiological mechanism behind caffeine's ability to improve MVC strength, a meta-analysis was run on ES from nine studies that measured percent muscle activation during MVC in trials comparing caffeine versus placebo; the overall ES (0.67) was highly significant (P = 0.00008) and of moderate to large size, thus implicating an effect of caffeine on the CNS. Caffeine ingestion was also found to exert a small beneficial effect on muscular endurance (overall ES = 0.28, P = 0.00005). However, it appears caffeine improves muscular endurance only when it is assessed using open (i.e., by approximately 18%, ES = 0.37) and not fixed end point tests. Overall, caffeine ingestion improves MVC strength and muscular endurance. The effect on strength appears exclusively in the knee extensors, and the effect on muscular endurance appears only detectable with open end point tests.
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              Measurement tools used in the study of eccentric contraction-induced injury.

              The objective of this review is to evaluate the measurement tools currently used in the study of eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury, with emphasis on their usefulness for quantifying the magnitude and duration of the injury and as indicators of muscle functional deficits. In studies in humans, it was concluded that measurements of maximal voluntary contraction torque and range of motion provide the best methods for quantifying muscle injury. Similarly, in animal studies, the in vitro measurement of electrically elicited force under isometric conditions was considered to be the best of the measurement tools currently in use. For future studies, more effort should be put into measuring other contractile parameters (e.g. force/torque-velocity and force/torque-length relationships maximal shortening velocity and fatigue susceptibility) that may reflect injury-induced functional impairments. The use of histology, ratings of soreness and the measurement of blood or bath levels of myofibre proteins should be discouraged for purposes of quantifying muscle injury and/or functional impairment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                16 February 2018
                February 2018
                : 10
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Human Science Research Unit, Centre for Interventions in Infection, Inflammation & Immunity (4i), University of Limerick, Limerick V94 T9PX, Ireland; brian.carson@ 123456ul.ie (B.P.C.); phil.jakeman@ 123456ul.ie (P.M.J.)
                [2 ]Food, Health Ireland, Physical Education and Sport Sciences Department, University of Limerick, Limerick V94 T9PX, Ireland
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: robert.davies@ 123456ul.ie ; Tel.: +353-61-374-779
                Article
                nutrients-10-00221
                10.3390/nu10020221
                5852797
                29462923
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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