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      Risk of cadmium, lead and zinc exposure from consumption of vegetables produced in areas with mining and smelting past

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          Abstract

          The study reveals links between disturbed geochemical environment being the result of mining and smelting activities with consumers exposure to toxic and carcinogenic metallic trace elements (MTEs). This study focused on evaluation on vegetable and soil pollution in family allotment gardens (FAGs), considering in the aspects of consumer exposure to cadmium, lead and zinc. Study material consisted of 219 soil samples from FAGs located in one of the most polluted areas in Poland, and 64 samples of edible plants. Contents of analyzed MTEs in topsoil in the studied area were spatially diversified and depended primarily on the location of industrial pollution sources. The average content of cadmium (0.52 mg kg −1 fresh weight) and lead (0.57 mg kg −1 fresh weight) in vegetables exceeded maximum permissible concentrations according to the European Quality Standards. Human health risk assessment was based on three scenarios of dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and zinc. In every scenario the highest average daily dose for all three elements was estimated for potatoes which are one of the main components of Poles’ diet. Presented study showed that consumption of vegetables cultivated in FAGs located in Silesia Province may pose a significant health risk for their consumers.

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          Health risks of heavy metals to the general public in Tianjin, China via consumption of vegetables and fish.

          Consumption of vegetables and fish contaminated with the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, and Cr is the most likely route for human exposure in Tianjin, China. Health risks associated with these heavy metals were assessed based on the target hazard quotients (THQs), which can be derived from concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables and fish consumed in four districts (Dong Li, Xi Qing, Jin Nan, and Bei Chen) and the urban area of Tianjin, China. Individual metal THQ ( 1. Risk contribution from Cr is minimal compared to the other elements. Hg is the major risk contributor for children in Bei Chen since the THQ contribution amounts to about 45% of the total THQ values due to vegetables and fish consumption. The health risk to adults in Ding Li is ascribed mainly to the intake of Cd by vegetables and fish consumption, which contributes a substantial fraction to the total THQ (about 51%).
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            Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer.

            Heavy metal pollution of soils resulting from sewage and wastewater irrigation is causing major concern due to the potential risk involved. In the present study Musi River and its environs were assessed for heavy metal contamination. The study area was assessed for Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co and Pb in soils, forage grass, milk from cattle, leafy and non-leafy vegetables. Partitioning pattern of soil revealed high levels of Zn, Cr, and Cu associated with labile fractions, making them more mobile and plant available. The associated risk was assessed using hazard quotient (HQ). Human risk was assessed in people known to consume these contaminated foods by analyzing metals concentrations in venous blood and urine. Results showed high amounts of Pb, Zn, Cr, and Ni compared to permissible limits. HQ was found to be high for Zn followed by Cr and Pb with special reference to leafy vegetables particularly spinach and amaranthus.
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              Cadmium dietary exposure in the European population

              (2012)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                mdrabek@sum.edu.pl
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                25 February 2020
                25 February 2020
                2020
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2198 0923, GRID grid.411728.9, Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences in Bytom, , Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland, ; 18 Piekarska Street, 41-902 Bytom, Poland
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2198 0923, GRID grid.411728.9, Students Scientific Circle at the Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences in Bytom, , Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland, ; 18 Piekarska Street, 41-902 Bytom, Poland
                Article
                60386
                10.1038/s41598-020-60386-8
                7042296
                32099081
                24165027-08d3-4ea3-b575-6e1c8c84c59b
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100007771, Śląski Uniwersytet Medyczny (Medical University of Silesia);
                Award ID: KNW-1-099/N/9/Z
                Award ID: KNW-1-099/N/9/Z
                Award ID: KNW-1-099/N/9/Z
                Award ID: KNW-1-099/N/9/Z
                Award Recipient :
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                © The Author(s) 2020

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                environmental sciences, risk factors

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