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Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture

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      Abstract

      The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field.

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      Probiotics in man and animals.

      There is good evidence that the complex microbial flora present in the gastrointestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals is effective in providing resistance to disease. However, the composition of this protective flora can be altered by dietary and environmental influences, making the host animal susceptible to disease and/or reducing its efficiency of food utilization. What we are doing with the probiotic treatments is re-establishing the natural condition which exists in the wild animal but which has been disrupted by modern trends in conditions used for rearing young animals, including human babies, and in modern approaches to nutrition and disease therapy. These are all areas where the gut flora can be altered for the worse and where, by the administration of probiotics, the natural balance of the gut microflora can be restored and the animal returned to its normal nutrition, growth and health status.
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        Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture.

        There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be the use of probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This review describes the state of the art of probiotic research in the culture of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and live food, with an evaluation of the results obtained so far. A new definition of probiotics, also applicable to aquatic environments, is proposed, and a detailed description is given of their possible modes of action, i.e., production of compounds that are inhibitory toward pathogens, competition with harmful microorganisms for nutrients and energy, competition with deleterious species for adhesion sites, enhancement of the immune response of the animal, improvement of water quality, and interaction with phytoplankton. A rationale is proposed for the multistep and multidisciplinary process required for the development of effective and safe probiotics for commercial application in aquaculture. Finally, directions for further research are discussed.
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          The use of probiotics in aquaculture

           F.J Gatesoupe (1999)
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100, 04960 Mexico City, Mexico
            2Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100, 04960 Mexico City, Mexico
            3Departamento de Hidrobiología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico City, Mexico
            4Departamento de Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico City, Mexico
            Author notes
            *Hugo C. Ramírez Saad: hurasa@ 123456hotmail.com

            Academic Editors: D. H. Kingsley and M. Mitsumori

            Journal
            ISRN Microbiol
            ISRN Microbiol
            ISRN.MICROBIOLOGY
            ISRN Microbiology
            International Scholarly Research Network
            2090-7478
            2090-7486
            2012
            16 October 2012
            : 2012
            23762761
            3671701
            10.5402/2012/916845
            Copyright © 2012 Patricia Martínez Cruz et al.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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