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      Distribution and habitats of Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) and M. victoriae (Dohrn, 1865)(Mollusca: Prosobranchia: Thiaridae) in South Africa

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          Abstract

          An account is given of the geographical distribution and habitats of Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) and M. victoriae (Dohrn, 1865) as reflected by the samples on record in the database of the National Freshwater Snail Collection (NFSC) of South Africa. About 30 species of Melanoides occur in Africa of which only M. tuberculata is widespread. Melanoides tuberculata is also indigenous to India and the south-east Asian mainland to northern Australia and was widespread in the present-day Sahara during the late Pleistocene-Holocene, but M. victoriae seems to be restricted to Southern Africa. Details of the habitats on record for each species, as well as mean altitude and mean annual air temperature and rainfall for each locality, were processed to determine chi-square and effect-size values. An integrated decision-tree analysis indicated that temperature, altitude and type of substratum were the most important factors of those investigated that played a significant role in establishing the geographical distribution of these species in South Africa. In view of the fact that M. tuberculata can serve as intermediate host for a number of trematode species elsewhere in the world, it is recommended that the ability of the 2 local Melanoides species to act as intermediate hosts should be investigated. Due to the fact that the majority of sites from which these species were recovered were not since revisited, it is recommended that efforts should be made to update their geographical distribution and the results compared with the data in the database. The conservation status of these 2 species and the possible influence of global warming and climatic changes on their geographical distribution are briefly discussed.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Freshwater snails of Africa and their medical importance

           DS BROWN,  DS Brown,  D. BROWN (1994)
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            An introductory guide to the identification of cercariae from African freshwater snails with special reference to cercariae of trematode species of medical and veterinary importance.

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              Distribution patterns and cercarial shedding of Bulinus nasutus and other snails in the Msambweni area, Coast Province, Kenya.

              In the Msambweni area of the Kwale District in Kenya, an area endemic for Schistosoma haematobium, potential intermediate-host snails were systematically surveyed in water bodies associated with human contact that were previously surveyed in the 1980s. Bulinus (africanus) nasutus, which accounted for 67% of the snails collected, was the only snail shedding S. haematobium cercariae. Lanistes purpureus was the second most common snail (25%); lower numbers of Bulinus forskalii and Melanoides tuberculata were also recovered. Infection with non-S. haematobium trematodes was found among all snail species. Rainfall was significantly associated with the temporal distribution of all snail species: high numbers of Bulinus nasutus developed after extensive rainfall, followed, in turn, by increased S. haematobium shedding. Spatial distribution of snails was significantly clustered over a range of up to 1 km, with peak clustering observed at a distance of 400 meters. Water lily (Nymphaea spp.) and several aquatic grass species appeared necessary for local colonization by B. nasutus or L. purpureus.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                wsa
                Water SA
                Water SA
                Water Research Commission (WRC) (Pretoria )
                0378-4738
                October 2009
                : 35
                : 5
                : 713-720
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Northwest University Peoples R China
                [2 ] Northwest University Peoples R China
                S1816-79502009000500020

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO South Africa
                Categories
                Water Resources

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