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      East Asian Cryphalus Erichson (Curculionidae, Scolytinae): new species, new synonymy and redescriptions of species

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          Cryphalus Erichson, 1836 is a taxonomically challenging genus. It is particularly speciose in Asia. Many species are minor pests of fruit tree crops and forest products. We review collections from East Asia, using external morphology, internal morphology and genetic markers with a focus on sub-tropical species from fruit trees. Four new species are described; Cryphalus gnetivorus Johnson, sp. nov., C. itinerans Johnson, sp. nov., C. morivorus Johnson, sp. nov., and C. paramangiferae Johnson, sp. nov. Ten species are redescribed to enable accurate identification: C. artocarpus (Schedl, 1939), C. dilutus Eichhoff, 1878, C. dorsalis (Motschulsky, 1866), C. exiguus Blandford, 1894, C. kyotoensis Nobuchi, 1966, C. lipingensis Tsai & Li, 1963 (= C. kesiyae Browne, 1975, syn. nov.), C. mangiferae Stebbing, 1914 (= C. artestriatus Browne, 1970, syn. nov.), C. meridionalis (Nobuchi, 1975), C. scopiger Berger, 1917, and C. viburni Stark, 1936. Additional records from new localities and new hosts are also presented.

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          Most cited references 46

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          MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space

          Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple analyses to be run in parallel with convergence progress monitored on the fly. The introduction of new proposals and automatic optimization of tuning parameters has improved convergence for many problems. The new version also sports significantly faster likelihood calculations through streaming single-instruction-multiple-data extensions (SSE) and support of the BEAGLE library, allowing likelihood calculations to be delegated to graphics processing units (GPUs) on compatible hardware. Speedup factors range from around 2 with SSE code to more than 50 with BEAGLE for codon problems. Checkpointing across all models allows long runs to be completed even when an analysis is prematurely terminated. New models include relaxed clocks, dating, model averaging across time-reversible substitution models, and support for hard, negative, and partial (backbone) tree constraints. Inference of species trees from gene trees is supported by full incorporation of the Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) algorithms. Marginal model likelihoods for Bayes factor tests can be estimated accurately across the entire model space using the stepping stone method. The new version provides more output options than previously, including samples of ancestral states, site rates, site d N /d S rations, branch rates, and node dates. A wide range of statistics on tree parameters can also be output for visualization in FigTree and compatible software.
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            Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator.

            Astraptes fulgerator, first described in 1775, is a common and widely distributed neotropical skipper butterfly (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). We combine 25 years of natural history observations in northwestern Costa Rica with morphological study and DNA barcoding of museum specimens to show that A. fulgerator is a complex of at least 10 species in this region. Largely sympatric, these taxa have mostly different caterpillar food plants, mostly distinctive caterpillars, and somewhat different ecosystem preferences but only subtly differing adults with no genitalic divergence. Our results add to the evidence that cryptic species are prevalent in tropical regions, a critical issue in efforts to document global species richness. They also illustrate the value of DNA barcoding, especially when coupled with traditional taxonomic tools, in disclosing hidden diversity.
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              Host specificity of ambrosia and bark beetles (Col., Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) in a New Guinea rainforest


                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                18 November 2020
                : 995
                : 15-66
                [1 ] School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA
                [2 ] Department of Forest Protection, Wood Science and Game Management, Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical University named after S.M. Kirov, Institutskii per., 5; 194021, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
                [3 ] Research Institute of Forest Insect Diversity, Namyangju, 12113, South Korea
                [4 ] Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
                [5 ] Shanghai Academy of Landscape Architecture Science and Planning, Key Laboratory of National Forestry and Grassland Administration on Ecological Landscaping of Challenging Urban Sites, Shanghai 200232, China
                [6 ] Department of Entomology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Andrew J. Johnson ( ajj@ 123456ufl.edu )

                Academic editor: M. Alonso-Zarazaga

                Andrew J. Johnson, You Li, Michail Yu. Mandelshtam, Sangwook Park, Ching-Shan Lin, Lei Gao, Jiri Hulcr

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funded by: U.S. Department of Agriculture 100000199 http://doi.org/10.13039/100000199
                Research Article
                Faunistics & Distribution
                Molecular systematics


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