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      Nano- and microparticles at fluid and biological interfaces


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          Systems with interfaces are abundant in both technological applications and biology. While a fluid interface separates two fluids, membranes separate the inside of vesicles from the outside, the interior of biological cells from the environment, and compartmentalize cells into organelles. The physical properties of interfaces are characterized by interface tension, those of membranes are characterized by bending and stretching elasticity. Amphiphilic molecules like surfactants that are added to a system with two immiscible fluids decrease the interface tension and induce a bending rigidity. Lipid bilayer membranes of vesicles can be stretched or compressed by osmotic pressure; in biological cells, also the presence of a cytoskeleton can induce membrane tension. If the thickness of the interface or the membrane is small compared with its lateral extension, both can be described using two-dimensional mathematical surfaces embedded in three-dimensional space. We review recent work on the interaction of particles with interfaces and membranes. This can be micrometer-sized particles at interfaces that stabilise emulsions or form colloidosomes, as well as typically nanometer-sized particles at membranes, such as viruses, parasites, and engineered drug delivery systems. In both cases, we first discuss the interaction of single particles with interfaces and membranes, e.g. particles in external fields, non-spherical particles, and particles at curved interfaces, followed by interface-mediated interaction between two particles, many-particle interactions, interface and membrane curvature-induced phenomena, and applications.

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          Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy.

          Recent advances in far-field fluorescence microscopy have led to substantial improvements in image resolution, achieving a near-molecular resolution of 20 to 30 nanometers in the two lateral dimensions. Three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale-resolution imaging, however, remains a challenge. We demonstrated 3D stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) by using optical astigmatism to determine both axial and lateral positions of individual fluorophores with nanometer accuracy. Iterative, stochastic activation of photoswitchable probes enables high-precision 3D localization of each probe, and thus the construction of a 3D image, without scanning the sample. Using this approach, we achieved an image resolution of 20 to 30 nanometers in the lateral dimensions and 50 to 60 nanometers in the axial dimension. This development allowed us to resolve the 3D morphology of nanoscopic cellular structures.
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            Nanoparticle size and surface properties determine the protein corona with possible implications for biological impacts.

            Nanoparticles in a biological fluid (plasma, or otherwise) associate with a range of biopolymers, especially proteins, organized into the "protein corona" that is associated with the nanoparticle and continuously exchanging with the proteins in the environment. Methodologies to determine the corona and to understand its dependence on nanomaterial properties are likely to become important in bionanoscience. Here, we study the long-lived ("hard") protein corona formed from human plasma for a range of nanoparticles that differ in surface properties and size. Six different polystyrene nanoparticles were studied: three different surface chemistries (plain PS, carboxyl-modified, and amine-modified) and two sizes of each (50 and 100 nm), enabling us to perform systematic studies of the effect of surface properties and size on the detailed protein coronas. Proteins in the corona that are conserved and unique across the nanoparticle types were identified and classified according to the protein functional properties. Remarkably, both size and surface properties were found to play a very significant role in determining the nanoparticle coronas on the different particles of identical materials. We comment on the future need for scientific understanding, characterization, and possibly some additional emphasis on standards for the surfaces of nanoparticles.
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              Far-field optical nanoscopy.

              In 1873, Ernst Abbe discovered what was to become a well-known paradigm: the inability of a lens-based optical microscope to discern details that are closer together than half of the wavelength of light. However, for its most popular imaging mode, fluorescence microscopy, the diffraction barrier is crumbling. Here, I discuss the physical concepts that have pushed fluorescence microscopy to the nanoscale, once the prerogative of electron and scanning probe microscopes. Initial applications indicate that emergent far-field optical nanoscopy will have a strong impact in the life sciences and in other areas benefiting from nanoscale visualization.

                Author and article information

                J Phys Condens Matter
                J Phys Condens Matter
                Journal of Physics
                IOP Publishing
                20 September 2017
                11 August 2017
                : 29
                : 37
                : 373003
                [1 ]Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore , Singapore 117411, Singapore sabyadg.softbio@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Institut Curie , CNRS, UMR 168, 75005 Paris, France
                [3 ]Theoretical Soft Matter and Biophysics, Institute of Complex Systems and Institute for Advanced Simulation , Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany t.auth@ 123456fz-juelich.de g.gompper@ 123456fz-juelich.de
                [4 ]Present address: Department of Physics, University of Toronto , Toronto, Ontario M5S1A7, Canada
                cmaa7933 aa7933 JPCM-108589.R1
                © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

                : 30 December 2016
                : 12 April 2017
                : 13 June 2017
                Page count
                Pages: 41
                Topical Review
                Custom metadata
                Printed in the UK

                membranes,nanoparticles,capillary interactions,lipid bilayers,emulsions,viruses,interfaces


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