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      Left Ventricular Hypertrophy : Pathogenesis, Detection, and Prognosis

      1 , 1

      Circulation

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Most cited references 42

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          Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in connective tissue remodeling.

           J. Woessner (1991)
          Matrix metalloproteinases are an important group of zinc enzymes responsible for degradation of the extracellular matrix components such as collagen and proteoglycans in normal embryogenesis and remodeling and in many disease processes such as arthritis, cancer, periodontitis, and osteoporosis. A matrixin family is defined, comprising at least seven members that range in size from Mr 28,000 to 92,000 and are related in gene sequence to collagenase. All family members are secreted as zymogens that lose peptides of about 10,000 daltons upon activation. Latency is due to a conserved cysteine that binds to zinc at the active center. Latency is overcome by physical (chaotropic agents), chemical (HOCl, mercurials), and enzymatic (trypsin, plasmin) treatments that separate the cysteine residue from the zinc. Expression of the metalloproteinases is switched on by a variety of agents acting through regulatory elements of the gene, particularly the AP-1 binding site. A family of protein inhibitors of Mr 28,500 or less binds strongly and stoichiometrically in noncovalent fashion to inhibit members of the family. The serum protein alpha 2-macroglobulin and relatives are also strongly inhibitory.
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            Congestive heart failure in subjects with normal versus reduced left ventricular ejection fraction

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              Echocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy: the Framingham Heart Study.

              Of 6,148 original cohort and offspring subjects of the Framingham Heart Study who underwent routine evaluation, a healthy group of 347 men (aged 42 +/- 12 years) and 517 women (aged 43 +/- 12 years) was identified to develop echocardiographic criteria for left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Healthy subjects were defined as normotensive, receiving no cardiac or antihypertensive medications, nonobese and free of cardiopulmonary disease. Echocardiographic criteria (in accordance with the American Society of Echocardiography convention) for LV hypertrophy, based on mean plus 2 standard deviations for LV mass, LV mass corrected for body surface area and LV mass corrected for height in this healthy sample are, respectively: 294 g, 150 g/m2 and 163 g/m in men and 198 g, 120 g/m2 and 121 g/m in women. Criteria based on LV mass/height result in higher prevalence rates of LV hypertrophy than LV mass/body surface area while still correcting for body size. The prevalence of LV hypertrophy in the entire study population (using LV mass/height criteria) is 16% in men and 19% in women. Until outcome guided criteria for LV hypertrophy are developed, application of sex-specific criteria based on a healthy population distribution of LV mass offer the best approach to echocardiographic diagnosis of LV hypertrophy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                July 25 2000
                July 25 2000
                : 102
                : 4
                : 470-479
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass (B.H.L.), and the Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Tex
                Article
                10.1161/01.CIR.102.4.470
                10908222
                © 2000

                Molecular medicine, Neurosciences

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