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      Comprehensive Insights in the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Genome Using New WGS Data of Sheep Strain JIII-386 from Germany

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          Abstract

          Mycobacterium avium ( M. a.) subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)—the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease—affects cattle, sheep, and other ruminants worldwide. To decipher phenotypic differences among sheep and cattle strains (belonging to MAP-S [Type-I/III], respectively, MAP-C [Type-II]), comparative genome analysis needs data from diverse isolates originating from different geographic regions of the world. This study presents the so far best assembled genome of a MAP-S-strain: Sheep isolate JIII-386 from Germany. One newly sequenced cattle isolate (JII-1961, Germany), four published MAP strains of MAP-C and MAP-S from the United States and Australia, and M. a. subsp. hominissuis (MAH) strain 104 were used for assembly improvement and comparisons. All genomes were annotated by BacProt and results compared with NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) annotation. Corresponding protein-coding sequences (CDSs) were detected, but also CDSs that were exclusively determined by either NCBI or BacProt. A new Shine–Dalgarno sequence motif (5′-AGCTGG-3′) was extracted. Novel CDSs including PE-PGRS family protein genes and about 80 noncoding RNAs exhibiting high sequence conservation are presented. Previously found genetic differences between MAP-types are partially revised. Four of ten assumed MAP-S-specific large sequence polymorphism regions (LSP S s) are still present in MAP-C strains; new LSP S s were identified. Independently of the regional origin of the strains, the number of individual CDSs and single nucleotide variants confirms the strong similarity of MAP-C strains and shows higher diversity among MAP-S strains. This study gives ambiguous results regarding the hypothesis that MAP-S is the evolutionary intermediate between MAH and MAP-C, but it clearly shows a higher similarity of MAP to MAH than to Mycobacterium intracellulare.

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          Thiamine derivatives bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression.

          Although proteins fulfil most of the requirements that biology has for structural and functional components such as enzymes and receptors, RNA can also serve in these capacities. For example, RNA has sufficient structural plasticity to form ribozyme and receptor elements that exhibit considerable enzymatic power and binding specificity. Moreover, these activities can be combined to create allosteric ribozymes that are modulated by effector molecules. It has also been proposed that certain messenger RNAs might use allosteric mechanisms to mediate regulatory responses depending on specific metabolites. We report here that mRNAs encoding enzymes involved in thiamine (vitamin B(1)) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli can bind thiamine or its pyrophosphate derivative without the need for protein cofactors. The mRNA-effector complex adopts a distinct structure that sequesters the ribosome-binding site and leads to a reduction in gene expression. This metabolite-sensing regulatory system provides an example of a 'riboswitch' whose evolutionary origin might pre-date the emergence of proteins.
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            Restricted structural gene polymorphism in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex indicates evolutionarily recent global dissemination.

            One-third of humans are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. Sequence analysis of two megabases in 26 structural genes or loci in strains recovered globally discovered a striking reduction of silent nucleotide substitutions compared with other human bacterial pathogens. The lack of neutral mutations in structural genes indicates that M. tuberculosis is evolutionarily young and has recently spread globally. Species diversity is largely caused by rapidly evolving insertion sequences, which means that mobile element movement is a fundamental process generating genomic variation in this pathogen. Three genetic groups of M. tuberculosis were identified based on two polymorphisms that occur at high frequency in the genes encoding catalase-peroxidase and the A subunit of gyrase. Group 1 organisms are evolutionarily old and allied with M. bovis, the cause of bovine tuberculosis. A subset of several distinct insertion sequence IS6110 subtypes of this genetic group have IS6110 integrated at the identical chromosomal insertion site, located between dnaA and dnaN in the region containing the origin of replication. Remarkably, study of approximately 6,000 isolates from patients in Houston and the New York City area discovered that 47 of 48 relatively large case clusters were caused by genotypic group 1 and 2 but not group 3 organisms. The observation that the newly emergent group 3 organisms are associated with sporadic rather than clustered cases suggests that the pathogen is evolving toward a state of reduced transmissability or virulence.
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              Occurrence and stability of insertion sequences in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains: evaluation of an insertion sequence-dependent DNA polymorphism as a tool in the epidemiology of tuberculosis.

              In this study we established the usefulness of DNA fingerprinting for the epidemiology of tuberculosis on the basis of the DNA polymorphism generated by the insertion sequence (IS) IS986. Although clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis displayed a remarkably high degree of restriction fragment length polymorphism, we showed that transposition of this IS element is an extremely rare event in M. tuberculosis complex strains grown either in vitro or in vivo for long periods of time. The M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium africanum strains tested in this study contained 6 to 17 IS copies. In the Mycobacterium bovis strains, the copy numbers ranged between 1 and 5, and all 27 M. bovis BCG strains investigated invariably contained a single IS copy. This copy was located at a unique chromosomal position, reinforcing the idea that the frequency of IS transposition is very low in M. tuberculosis complex strains. Various microepidemics are described in which each microepidemic corresponds to a particular fingerprint type. The extent of similarity between Dutch and African strains was quantitatively assessed by computer-assisted analysis of DNA fingerprints. The results indicate that M. tuberculosis strains from regions in central Africa, where tuberculosis is highly prevalent, are generally more related to each other than isolates from the Netherlands, where the transmission rate is low and where the majority of the tuberculosis cases are presumed to be the result of reactivation of previously contracted M. tuberculosis infections.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genome Biol Evol
                Genome Biol Evol
                gbe
                gbe
                Genome Biology and Evolution
                Oxford University Press
                1759-6653
                September 2015
                17 September 2015
                17 September 2015
                : 7
                : 9
                : 2585-2601
                Affiliations
                1NRL for Paratuberculosis, Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (Federal Research Institute for Animal Health), Jena, Germany
                2RNA Bioinformatics and High Throughput Analysis, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany
                3Leibniz Institute for Age Research – Fritz-Lipmann-Institute (FLI), Jena, Germany
                4Department of Genome Analysis, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany
                5Michael Stifel Center, Jena, Germany
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: E-mail: petra.moebius@ 123456fli.bund.de .

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Associate editor: Tal Dagan

                Article
                evv154
                10.1093/gbe/evv154
                4607514
                26384038
                © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 17
                Categories
                Research Article

                Genetics

                evolution of map-types, snv/snp, new lspss, shine–dalgarno sequence, ncrna, johne’s disease, map-s

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