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      Five new subterranean amphipods of the genus Pseudocrangonyx from Korea (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Pseudocrangonyctidae)

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          Abstract

          Although the majority of the species belonging to the genus Pseudocrangonyx Akatsuka & Komai, 1922 are found among the subterranean fauna of eastern Asia, the taxonomic knowledge is very poor and only four species have been recorded in Korea. In this study, the morphology of the stygobitic pseudocrangonyctid amphipods from Korean subterranean waters was examined and five new species were identified: Pseudocrangonyx concavus sp. nov. has a characteristic emarginated posteroventral margin of epimeral plate 3; Pseudocrangonyx gracilipes sp. nov. differs from other pseudocrangonyctids by the slender and elongated pereopods and more produced posterodistal corner of epimeral plate 3. Pseudocrangonyx crassus sp. nov. shows the expanded peduncular articles and a reduced flagellum of antenna 2. Pseudocrangonyx minutus sp. nov. is distinguished by more reduced pleopod articles compare to other pseudocrangonyctids. Pseudocrangonyx villosus sp. nov. has the more setose bases of pereopods 3 and 4. Detailed descriptions and illustrations are presented for these five new species.

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          Drawing setae the digital way

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            A phylogeny and classification of the Senticaudata subord. nov. Crustacea: Amphipoda).

            The Amphipoda includes a large clade defined by the presence of a previously unrecognised synapomorphy, apical robust setae on the rami of uropods 1-2. We term this clade the Senticaudata subord. nov. (Latin: sentis = thorn). It includes almost all freshwater species as well as a number of marine benthic taxa, formerly part of the 'Gammaridea'. The phylog-eny of the senticaudates was determined by cladistic analysis of morphological characters and character states. Within the suborder Senticaudata there are six infraorders: Carangoliopsida, Talitrida, Hadziida, Corophiida, Bogidiellida and Gam-marida. A classification is provided and all the senticaudate families are diagnosed. We introduce for the first time in am-phipod classification, the level parvorder between infraorder and superfamily. Four new families are described: Kairosidae; Eriopisidae; Nuuanuidae and Kergueleniolidae.
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              A molecular phylogeny of Pseudocrangonyx from Japan, including a new subterranean species (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Pseudocrangonyctidae)

              A subterranean species of pseudocrangonyctid amphipod, Pseudocrangonyx gudariensis Tomikawa & Sato, sp. n., is described from the spring-fed stream Gudari-numa in Hakkoda Mountains, Aomori Prefecture, northern Japan. Pseudocrangonyx gudariensis is morphologically similar to P. coreanus Uéno, 1966 and P. febras Sidorov, 2009 based on its relatively small body size, small number of articles of rami of pleopods, and urosomite 1 without basal setae. However, P. gudariensis is distinguished from those species based on the following characteristics: from P. coreanus, antenna 2 of female without calceoli, palmar margins of gnathopods 1 and 2 with distally notched robust setae, inner margin of inner ramus of uropod 2 with 4 robust setae, and basal part of inner ramus of uropod 2 without slender seta; and from P. febras, carpus of gnathopod 2 without serrate robust setae on posterodistal corners, peduncle of pleopods 1 and 2 with setae, and longer article 2 of uropod 3. Phylogenetic analyses using nuclear 28S rRNA and histone H3, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA markers showed that P. gudariensis is placed among known Pseudocrangonyx Akatsuka and Komai, 1922 species. However, its exact phylogenetic position within the genus could not be determined. The polyphyly of the Japanese Pseudocrangonyx species indicates that multiple colonization events of Pseudocrangonyx ancestors to the Japanese Archipelago could have occurred. The reliability of the past Pseudocrangonyx records from Japan is briefly discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                21 September 2020
                : 970
                : 1-50
                Affiliations
                [1 ] National Institute of Ecology, Yeongyang 36531, South Korea National Institute of Ecology Yeongyang South Korea
                [2 ] Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Busan 49111, South Korea Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology Busan South Korea
                [3 ] National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea, Seocheon 33662, South Korea National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea Seocheon South Korea
                [4 ] Department of Biology, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, South Korea Chosun University Gwangju South Korea
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Seong Myeong Yoon ( smyun@ 123456chosun.ac.kr )

                Academic editor: C. O. Coleman

                Article
                55035
                10.3897/zookeys.970.55035
                7522114
                246c4d0d-5745-48bd-9b32-9bb87c06114d
                Tae Won Jung, Jong Guk Kim, Min-Seop Kim, Seong Myeong Yoon

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Amphipoda
                Taxonomy
                Far East

                Animal science & Zoology
                korea,new species,pseudocrangonyctid,stygobiotic amphipods,taxonomy,animalia,amphipoda,pseudocrangonyctidae

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