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      Alterations of Blood Brain Barrier Function in Hyperammonemia: An Overview

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          Abstract

          Ammonia is a neurotoxin involved in the pathogenesis of neurological conditions associated with hyperammonemia, including hepatic encephalopathy, a condition associated with acute—(ALF) or chronic liver failure. This article reviews evidence that apart from directly affecting the metabolism and function of the central nervous system cells, ammonia influences the passage of different molecules across the blood brain barrier (BBB). A brief description is provided of the tight junctions, which couple adjacent cerebral capillary endothelial cells to each other to form the barrier. Ammonia modulates the transcellular passage of low-to medium-size molecules, by affecting their carriers located at the BBB. Ammonia induces interrelated aberrations of the transport of the large neutral amino acids and aromatic amino acids (AAA), whose influx is augmented by exchange with glutamine produced in the course of ammonia detoxification, and maybe also modulated by the extracellularly acting gamma-glutamyl moiety transferring enzyme, gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase. Impaired AAA transport affects neurotransmission by altering intracerebral synthesis of catecholamines (serotonin and dopamine), and producing “false neurotransmitters” (octopamine and phenylethylamine). Ammonia also modulates BBB transport of the cationic amino acids: the nitric oxide precursor, arginine, and ornithine, which is an ammonia trap, and affects the transport of energy metabolites glucose and creatine. Moreover, ammonia acting either directly or in synergy with liver injury-derived inflammatory cytokines also evokes subtle increases of the transcellular passage of molecules of different size (BBB “leakage”), which appears to be responsible for the vasogenic component of cerebral edema associated with ALF.

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          The neurobiology of glia in the context of water and ion homeostasis.

          Astrocytes are highly complex cells that respond to a variety of external stimulations. One of the chief functions of astrocytes is to optimize the interstitial space for synaptic transmission by tight control of water and ionic homeostasis. Several lines of work have, over the past decade, expanded the role of astrocytes and it is now clear that astrocytes are active participants in the tri-partite synapse and modulate synaptic activity in hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus. Thus, the emerging concept of astrocytes includes both supportive functions as well as active modulation of neuronal output. Glutamate plays a central role in astrocytic-neuronal interactions. This excitatory amino acid is cleared from the neuronal synapses by astrocytes via glutamate transporters, and is converted into glutamine, which is released and in turn taken up by neurons. Furthermore, metabotropic glutamate receptor activation on astrocytes triggers via increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) a variety of responses. For example, calcium-dependent glutamate release from the astrocytes modulates the activity of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. In vivo studies have identified the astrocytic end-foot processes enveloping the vessel walls as the center for astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling and it is possible that Ca(2+) signaling events in the cellular component of the blood-brain barrier are instrumental in modulation of local blood flow as well as substrate transport. The hormonal regulation of water and ionic homeostasis is achieved by the opposing effects of vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide on astroglial water and chloride uptake. In conjuncture, the brain appears to have a distinct astrocytic perivascular system, involving several potassium channels as well as aquaporin 4, a membrane water channel, which has been localized to astrocytic endfeet and mediate water fluxes within the brain. The multitask functions of astrocytes are essential for higher brain function. One of the major challenges for future studies is to link receptor-mediated signaling events in astrocytes to their roles in metabolism, ion, and water homeostasis.
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            Serum levels of cytokines in chronic liver diseases.

            Serum levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1 beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were investigated in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) and correlated with the type of underlying disease and various clinical and laboratory parameters. Two hundred sixty-four patients suffering from various CLD were studied; 136 cases presented with liver cirrhosis, and 128 patients were in the noncirrhotic stage of their underlying liver diseases. Serum levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and CRP were elevated in patients with CLD. Endogenous cytokine patterns in CLD were stage dependent and only marginally affected by the type of underlying disease. The cirrhotic group of CLD patients showed higher serum levels in IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and CRP than did noncirrhotic cases, and these differences reached the level of statistical significance. IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha values were closely correlated but did not correlate with IL-6 levels. Elevated concentrations of cytokines represent a characteristic feature of CLD regardless of underlying disease. This and the apparent stage-dependency suggest that enhanced endogenous cytokine levels represent a consequence of liver dysfunction rather than of inflammatory disease.
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              Brain uptake of radiolabeled amino acids, amines, and hexoses after arterial injection.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +48-22-6086617 , +48-22-6086442 , jalb@cmdik.pan.pl
                Journal
                Neurotox Res
                Neurotoxicity Research
                Springer-Verlag (New York )
                1029-8428
                1476-3524
                27 August 2011
                27 August 2011
                February 2012
                : 21
                : 2
                : 236-244
                Affiliations
                Departament of Neurotoxicology, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106 Warszawa, Pawińskiego 5 Poland
                Article
                9269
                10.1007/s12640-011-9269-4
                3246587
                21874372
                246ff06b-638f-41cc-b86e-562589a5276b
                © The Author(s) 2011
                History
                : 11 July 2011
                : 12 August 2011
                : 17 August 2011
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

                Neurosciences
                ammonia neurotoxicity,blood–brain barrier,hepatic encephalopathy,vasogenic brain edema,amino acids

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