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      Renal involvement in autoimmune connective tissue diseases

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          Abstract

          Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that share certain clinical presentations and a disturbed immunoregulation, leading to autoantibody production. Subclinical or overt renal manifestations are frequently observed and complicate the clinical course of CTDs. Alterations of kidney function in Sjögren syndrome, systemic scleroderma (SSc), auto-immune myopathies (dermatomyositis and polymyositis), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy (APSN) as well as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are frequently present and physicians should be aware of that.

          In SLE, renal prognosis significantly improved based on specific classification and treatment strategies adjusted to kidney biopsy findings. Patients with scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), which is usually characterized by severe hypertension, progressive decline of renal function and thrombotic microangiopathy, show a significant benefit of early angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use in particular and strict blood pressure control in general. Treatment of the underlying autoimmune disorder or discontinuation of specific therapeutic agents improves kidney function in most patients with Sjögren syndrome, auto-immune myopathies, APSN and RA.

          In this review we focus on impairment of renal function in relation to underlying disease or adverse drug effects and implications on treatment decisions.

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          Most cited references127

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          Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus.

          M Hochberg (1997)
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            Mycophenolate mofetil versus cyclophosphamide for induction treatment of lupus nephritis.

            Recent studies have suggested that mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) may offer advantages over intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVC) for the treatment of lupus nephritis, but these therapies have not been compared in an international randomized, controlled trial. Here, we report the comparison of MMF and IVC as induction treatment for active lupus nephritis in a multinational, two-phase (induction and maintenance) study. We randomly assigned 370 patients with classes III through V lupus nephritis to open-label MMF (target dosage 3 g/d) or IVC (0.5 to 1.0 g/m(2) in monthly pulses) in a 24-wk induction study. Both groups received prednisone, tapered from a maximum starting dosage of 60 mg/d. The primary end point was a prespecified decrease in urine protein/creatinine ratio and stabilization or improvement in serum creatinine. Secondary end points included complete renal remission, systemic disease activity and damage, and safety. Overall, we did not detect a significantly different response rate between the two groups: 104 (56.2%) of 185 patients responded to MMF compared with 98 (53.0%) of 185 to IVC. Secondary end points were also similar between treatment groups. There were nine deaths in the MMF group and five in the IVC group. We did not detect significant differences between the MMF and IVC groups with regard to rates of adverse events, serious adverse events, or infections. Although most patients in both treatment groups experienced clinical improvement, the study did not meet its primary objective of showing that MMF was superior to IVC as induction treatment for lupus nephritis.
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              Frequency of specific cancer types in dermatomyositis and polymyositis: a population-based study.

              Dermatomyositis and polymyositis are associated with cancer, but previous nationwide studies have not had sufficient cases to test the association between myositis and specific cancer types. Our aim was to investigate the risk of specific cancer types in individuals with dermatomyositis and polymyositis. We did a pooled analysis of published national data from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. All patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis (> or =15 years old) were identified by discharge diagnosis from the Swedish National Board of Health (1964-83), Danish Hospital Discharge Registry (1977-89), and Finnish National Board of Health (1969-85). Personal details were matched to national cancer registries, to identify all cases of cancer up to 1987 in Sweden, 1995 in Denmark, and 1997 in Finland, and to national death registries for the same periods. We calculated standardised incidence ratios (SIR) for individual cancer sites for dermatomyositis and polymyositis separately, using national cancer rates by country, sex, age, and date. We identified 618 cases of dermatomyositis, of whom 198 had cancer. 115 of the 198 developed cancer after diagnosis of dermatomyositis. This disease was strongly associated with malignant disease (SIR 3.0, 95% CI 2.5-3.6), particularly ovarian (10.5, 6.1-18.1), lung (5.9, 3.7-9.2), pancreatic (3.8, 1.6-9.0), stomach (3.5, 1.7-7.3), and colorectal (2.5, 1.4-4.4) cancers, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (3.6, 1.2-11.1). 137 of the 914 cases of polymyositis had cancer, which developed after diagnosis of polymyositis in 95. Polymyositis was associated with a raised risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (3.7, 1.7-8.2), and lung (2.8, 1.8-4.4) and bladder cancers (2.4, 1.3-4.7). In both dermatomyositis and polymyositis, risk of malignant disease was highest at time of myositis diagnosis. Our results provide evidence that dermatomyositis is strongly associated with a wide range of cancers. The overall risk of malignant disease is also modestly increased among patients with polymyositis, with an excess for some cancers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Med
                BMC Med
                BMC Medicine
                BioMed Central
                1741-7015
                2013
                4 April 2013
                : 11
                : 95
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine IV, Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, Innsbruck, 6020, Austria
                Article
                1741-7015-11-95
                10.1186/1741-7015-11-95
                3616816
                23557013
                247b2f89-6662-4a62-b93b-1b7fbd8cc3f5
                Copyright ©2013 Kronbichler and Mayer; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 15 November 2012
                : 11 February 2013
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine
                antiphospholipid syndrome,connective tissue diseases,renal involvement,rheumatoid arthritis,scleroderma renal crisis, dermatomyositis/polymyositis,sjögren syndrome,systemic lupus erythematosus

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