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      Prevalence and transmission of mobilized colistin resistance (mcr) gene in bacteria common to animals and humans

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      Biosafety and Health
      Elsevier BV

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          Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study.

          Until now, polymyxin resistance has involved chromosomal mutations but has never been reported via horizontal gene transfer. During a routine surveillance project on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from food animals in China, a major increase of colistin resistance was observed. When an E coli strain, SHP45, possessing colistin resistance that could be transferred to another strain, was isolated from a pig, we conducted further analysis of possible plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance. Herein, we report the emergence of the first plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance mechanism, MCR-1, in Enterobacteriaceae.
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            Food animals and antimicrobials: impacts on human health.

            Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the "precautionary principle." Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans-directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes.
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              Polymyxins: Antibacterial Activity, Susceptibility Testing, and Resistance Mechanisms Encoded by Plasmids or Chromosomes.

              SUMMARYPolymyxins are well-established antibiotics that have recently regained significant interest as a consequence of the increasing incidence of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Colistin and polymyxin B are being seriously reconsidered as last-resort antibiotics in many areas where multidrug resistance is observed in clinical medicine. In parallel, the heavy use of polymyxins in veterinary medicine is currently being reconsidered due to increased reports of polymyxin-resistant bacteria. Susceptibility testing is challenging with polymyxins, and currently available techniques are presented here. Genotypic and phenotypic methods that provide relevant information for diagnostic laboratories are presented. This review also presents recent works in relation to recently identified mechanisms of polymyxin resistance, including chromosomally encoded resistance traits as well as the recently identified plasmid-encoded polymyxin resistance determinant MCR-1. Epidemiological features summarizing the current knowledge in that field are presented.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biosafety and Health
                Biosafety and Health
                Elsevier BV
                25900536
                June 2020
                June 2020
                : 2
                : 2
                : 71-78
                Article
                10.1016/j.bsheal.2020.05.001
                24883001-f37d-4d0b-a320-e6a24260c431
                © 2020

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/


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