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      A Maximum-Information-Minimum-Redundancy-Based Feature Fusion Framework for Ship Classification in Moderate-Resolution SAR Image


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          High-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images are mostly used in the current field of ship classification, but in practical applications, moderate-resolution SAR images that can offer wider swath are more suitable for maritime surveillance. The ship targets in moderate-resolution SAR images occupy only a few pixels, and some of them show the shape of bright spots, which brings great difficulty for ship classification. To fully explore the deep-level feature representations of moderate-resolution SAR images and avoid the “dimension disaster”, we innovatively proposed a feature fusion framework based on the classification ability of individual features and the efficiency of overall information representation, called maximum-information-minimum-redundancy (MIMR). First, we applied the Filter method and Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) method to form two feature subsets representing the best classification ability and the highest information representation efficiency in linear space and nonlinear space. Second, the MIMR feature fusion method is adopted to assign different weights to feature vectors with different physical properties and discriminability. Comprehensive experiments on the open dataset OpenSARShip show that compared with traditional and emerging deep learning methods, the proposed method can effectively fuse non-redundant complementary feature subsets to improve the performance of ship classification in moderate-resolution SAR images.

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          LIBSVM is a library for Support Vector Machines (SVMs). We have been actively developing this package since the year 2000. The goal is to help users to easily apply SVM to their applications. LIBSVM has gained wide popularity in machine learning and many other areas. In this article, we present all implementation details of LIBSVM. Issues such as solving SVM optimization problems theoretical convergence multiclass classification probability estimates and parameter selection are discussed in detail.
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            Feature selection is an important problem for pattern classification systems. We study how to select good features according to the maximal statistical dependency criterion based on mutual information. Because of the difficulty in directly implementing the maximal dependency condition, we first derive an equivalent form, called minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance criterion (mRMR), for first-order incremental feature selection. Then, we present a two-stage feature selection algorithm by combining mRMR and other more sophisticated feature selectors (e.g., wrappers). This allows us to select a compact set of superior features at very low cost. We perform extensive experimental comparison of our algorithm and other methods using three different classifiers (naive Bayes, support vector machine, and linear discriminate analysis) and four different data sets (handwritten digits, arrhythmia, NCI cancer cell lines, and lymphoma tissues). The results confirm that mRMR leads to promising improvement on feature selection and classification accuracy.
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              Deep Learning-Based Classification of Hyperspectral Data


                Author and article information

                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                13 January 2021
                January 2021
                : 21
                : 2
                Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106, China; zhou_gaoyu@ 123456nuaa.edu.cn (G.Z.); xuebiao@ 123456nuaa.edu.cn (B.X.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: gzhang@ 123456nuaa.edu.cn ; Tel.: +86-138-1389-6509
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                Biomedical engineering
                moderate-resolution sar image,feature fusion,filter method,kernel principal component analysis (kpca),maximum-information-minimum-redundancy (mimr),ship classification


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