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      Characterization of New TRPM8 Modulators in Pain Perception

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          Abstract

          Background: Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-8 (TRPM8) is a non-selective cation channel activated by cold temperature and by cooling agents. Several studies have proved that this channel is involved in pain perception. Although some studies indicate that TRPM8 inhibition is necessary to reduce acute and chronic pain, it is also reported that TRPM8 activation produces analgesia. These conflicting results could be explained by extracellular Ca 2+-dependent desensitization that is induced by an excessive activation. Likely, this effect is due to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) depletion that leads to modification of TRPM8 channel activity, shifting voltage dependence towards more positive potentials. This phenomenon needs further evaluation and confirmation that would allow us to understand better the role of this channel and to develop new therapeutic strategies for controlling pain. Experimental approach: To understand the role of TRPM8 in pain perception, we tested two specific TRPM8-modulating compounds, an antagonist (IGM-18) and an agonist (IGM-5), in either acute or chronic animal pain models using male Sprague-Dawley rats or CD1 mice, after systemic or topical routes of administration. Results: IGM-18 and IGM-5 were fully characterized in vivo. The wet-dog shake test and the body temperature measurements highlighted the antagonist activity of IGM-18 on TRPM8 channels. Moreover, IGM-18 exerted an analgesic effect on formalin-induced orofacial pain and chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain, demonstrating the involvement of TRPM8 channels in these two pain models. Finally, the results were consistent with TRPM8 downregulation by agonist IGM-5, due to its excessive activation. Conclusions: TRPM8 channels are strongly involved in pain modulation, and their selective antagonist is able to reduce both acute and chronic pain.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Identification of a cold receptor reveals a general role for TRP channels in thermosensation.

          The cellular and molecular mechanisms that enable us to sense cold are not well understood. Insights into this process have come from the use of pharmacological agents, such as menthol, that elicit a cooling sensation. Here we have characterized and cloned a menthol receptor from trigeminal sensory neurons that is also activated by thermal stimuli in the cool to cold range. This cold- and menthol-sensitive receptor, CMR1, is a member of the TRP family of excitatory ion channels, and we propose that it functions as a transducer of cold stimuli in the somatosensory system. These findings, together with our previous identification of the heat-sensitive channels VR1 and VRL-1, demonstrate that TRP channels detect temperatures over a wide range and are the principal sensors of thermal stimuli in the mammalian peripheral nervous system.
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            A TRP channel that senses cold stimuli and menthol.

            A distinct subset of sensory neurons are thought to directly sense changes in thermal energy through their termini in the skin. Very little is known about the molecules that mediate thermoreception by these neurons. Vanilloid Receptor 1 (VR1), a member of the TRP family of channels, is activated by noxious heat. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of TRPM8, a distant relative of VR1. TRPM8 is specifically expressed in a subset of pain- and temperature-sensing neurons. Cells overexpressing the TRPM8 channel can be activated by cold temperatures and by a cooling agent, menthol. Our identification of a cold-sensing TRP channel in a distinct subpopulation of sensory neurons implicates an expanded role for this family of ion channels in somatic sensory detection.
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              A peripheral mononeuropathy in rat that produces disorders of pain sensation like those seen in man

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                07 November 2019
                November 2019
                : 20
                : 22
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy; carmen.decaro@ 123456unina.it (C.D.C.); cla.cristiano@ 123456gmail.com (C.C.); carmen.avagliano@ 123456gmail.com (C.A.); carmine.ostacolo@ 123456unina.it (C.O.); imgomez@ 123456unina.it (I.G.-M.); gilarana@ 123456unina.it (G.L.R.); calignan@ 123456unina.it (A.C.)
                [2 ]Department of Science of Health, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy; abertamino@ 123456unisa.it (A.B.); pcampiglia@ 123456unisa.it (P.C.)
                [4 ]SERGAS (Servizo Galego de Saude) and IDIS (Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago), The NEIRID Group (Neuroendocrine Interactions in Rheumatology and inflammatory Diseases), Santiago University Clinical Hospital, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain; oreste.gualillo@ 123456sergas.es
                Author notes
                ijms-20-05544
                10.3390/ijms20225544
                6888553
                31703254
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular biology

                systemic administration, local application, neuropathic pain, orofacial pain, trpm8

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