In an attempt to clarify the renal involvement induced by human parvovirus B19 (HPB19) infection, we investigated 6 adult patients with transient urinary abnormalities followed by erythema infectiosum. All patients had HPB19-specific IgM antibody and showed mild proteinuria of 0.2–1.2 g/day with or without microscopic hematuria. In 5 patients a decrease of complement was present, and in 2 the circulating immune complex levels were elevated. All patients showed mild or moderate endocapillary proliferation with leukocytic infiltrates in glomeruli and leukocytic infiltrates with edema around interlobular arteries and arterioles. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed C3c deposits with immunoglobulins along the glomerular capillary walls and in the walls of small arteries and arterioles. Electron microscopic studies showed swelling of the endothelial cells and small electron-dense deposits in mesangium (in all 6 patients) and subendothelium (in 5 of 6 patients). However, HPB19 VP1 and VP2 capsid antigens were not demonstrated in the glomerulus or the vascular wall in any patient. These findings suggest that the renal lesions caused by an immune complex mediated phenomenon would be closely correlated with the HPB19 infection, although the precise mechanism is not entirely clear, and that in adults HPB19 should be thought of as a possible cause of acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis.