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      Facets of the Fundamental Content Dimensions: Agency with Competence and Assertiveness—Communion with Warmth and Morality

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          Abstract

          Agency (A) and communion (C) are fundamental content dimensions. We propose a facet-model that differentiates A into assertiveness (AA) and competence (AC) and C into warmth (CW) and morality (CM). We tested the model in a cross-cultural study by comparing data from Asia, Australia, Europe, and the USA (overall N = 1.808). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported our model. Both the two-factor model and the four-factor model showed good fit indices across countries. Participants answered additional measures intended to demonstrate the fruitfulness of distinguishing the facets. The findings support the model's construct validity by positioning the fundamental dimensions and their facets within a network of self-construal, values, impression management, and the Big Five personality factors: In all countries, A was related to independent self-construal and to agentic values, C was related to interdependent self-construal and to communal values. Regarding the facets, AA was always related to A values, but the association of AC with A values fell below our effect size criterion in four of the five countries. A (both AA and AC) was related to agentic impression management. However, C (both CW and CM) was neither related to communal nor to agentic impression management. Regarding the Big Five personality factors, A was related to emotional stability, to extraversion, and to conscientiousness. C was related to agreeableness and to extraversion. AA was more strongly related to emotional stability and extraversion than AC. CW was more strongly related to extraversion and agreeableness than CM. We could also show that self-esteem was more related to AA than AC; and that it was related to CM, but not to CW. Our research shows that (a) the fundamental dimensions of A and C are stable across cultures; and (b) that the here proposed distinction of facets of A and C is fruitful in analyzing self-perception. The here proposed measure, the AC-IN, may be a useful tool in this research area. Applications of the facet model in social perception research are discussed.

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          Most cited references 67

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          Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives

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              The Scree Test For The Number Of Factors

               R B Cattell (1966)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-1078
                22 November 2016
                2016
                : 7
                Affiliations
                1Department of Psychology and Sport Science, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg Erlangen, Germany
                2School of Psychology, University of Queensland Brisbane, QLD, Australia
                3Laboratoire de Psychologie des Cognitions, University of Strasbourg Strasbourg, France
                4University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Sopot Campus Warsaw, Poland
                5Department of Physical Education, Hong Kong Baptist University Hong Kong, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jeremy A. Frimer, University of Winnipeg, Canada

                Reviewed by: Jan Cieciuch, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw, Poland; Tanja Gabriele Baudson, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany

                *Correspondence: Andrea E. Abele andrea.abele-brehm@ 123456fau.de

                This article was submitted to Personality and Social Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                †Shared first authorship.

                Article
                10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01810
                5118442
                Copyright © 2016 Abele, Hauke, Peters, Louvet, Szymkow and Duan.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 97, Pages: 17, Words: 14577
                Funding
                Funded by: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft 10.13039/501100001659
                Award ID: Ab/45 10-2
                Categories
                Psychology
                Original Research

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