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      Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Intubation Teams

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          Abstract

          Some patients infected with the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) require endotracheal intubation, an aerosol-generating procedure that is believed to result in viral transmission to personnel performing the procedure. Additionally, donning and doffing personal protective equipment can be time consuming. In particular, doffing requires strict protocol adherence to avoid exposure. We describe the Emory Healthcare intubation team approach during the COVID-19 pandemic. This structure resulted in only 1 team member testing positive for COVID-19 despite 253 patient intubations over a 6-week period with 153 anesthesia providers on service.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and healthcare workers.

          The recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory synt drome (SARS) was spread by international air travel, a direct result of globalization. The disease is caused by a novel coronavirus, transmitted from human to human by droplets or by direct contact. Healthcare workers (HCWs) were at high risk and accounted for a fifth of all cases globally. Risk factors for infection in HCWs included lack of awareness and preparedness when the disease first struck, poor institutional infection control measures, lack of training in infection control procedures, poor compliance with the use of personal protection equipment (PPE), exposure to high-risk procedures such as intubation and nebulization, and exposure to unsuspected SARS patients. Measures to prevent nosocomial infection included establishing isolation wards for triage, SARS patients, and step-down; training and monitoring hospital staff in infection-control procedures; active and passive screening of HCWs; enforcement of droplet and contact precautions; and compliance with the use of PPE.
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            Emergency tracheal intubation in 202 patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: lessons learnt and international expert recommendations

            Summary Tracheal intubation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients creates a risk to physiologically compromised patients and to attending healthcare providers. Clinical information on airway management and expert recommendations in these patients are urgently needed. By analysing a two-centre retrospective observational case series from Wuhan, China, a panel of international airway management experts discussed the results and formulated consensus recommendations for the management of tracheal intubation in COVID-19 patients. Of 202 COVID-19 patients undergoing emergency tracheal intubation, most were males (n=136; 67.3%) and aged 65 yr or more (n=128; 63.4%). Most patients (n=152; 75.2%) were hypoxaemic (Sao 2 <90%) before intubation. Personal protective equipment was worn by all intubating healthcare workers. Rapid sequence induction (RSI) or modified RSI was used with an intubation success rate of 89.1% on the first attempt and 100% overall. Hypoxaemia (Sao 2 <90%) was common during intubation (n=148; 73.3%). Hypotension (arterial pressure <90/60 mm Hg) occurred in 36 (17.8%) patients during and 45 (22.3%) after intubation with cardiac arrest in four (2.0%). Pneumothorax occurred in 12 (5.9%) patients and death within 24 h in 21 (10.4%). Up to 14 days post-procedure, there was no evidence of cross infection in the anaesthesiologists who intubated the COVID-19 patients. Based on clinical information and expert recommendation, we propose detailed planning, strategy, and methods for tracheal intubation in COVID-19 patients.
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              Initial Clinical Impressions of the Critical Care of COVID-19 Patients in Seattle, New York City, and Chicago

              Since the first recognition of a cluster of novel respiratory viral infections in China in late December 2019, intensivists in the United States have watched with growing concern as infections with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus―now named Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19)―have spread to hospitals in the United States. Because COVID-19 is extremely transmissible and can progress to a severe form of respiratory failure, the potential to overwhelm available critical care resources is high and critical care management of COVID-19 patients has been thrust into the spotlight. COVID-19 arrived in the United States in January and, as anticipated, has dramatically increased the usage of critical care resources. Three of the hardest-hit cities have been Seattle, New York City, and Chicago with a combined total of over 14,000 cases as of March 23, 2020. In this special article, we describe initial clinical impressions of critical care of COVID-19 in these areas, with attention to clinical presentation, laboratory values, organ system effects, treatment strategies, and resource management. We highlight clinical observations that align with or differ from already published reports. These impressions represent only the early empiric experience of the authors and are not intended to serve as recommendations or guidelines for practice, but rather as a starting point for intensivists preparing to address COVID-19 when it arrives in their community.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                A A Pract
                A A Pract
                ACC
                A&a Practice
                Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (Hagerstown, MD )
                2575-3126
                19 June 2020
                June 2020
                : 14
                : 8
                : e01263
                Affiliations
                From the [* ]Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia
                []Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
                []Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
                Author notes
                Address correspondence to Grant C. Lynde, MD, MBA, Emory University, Department of Anesthesiology, 5T, 1364 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30322. Address e-mail to glynde@ 123456emory.edu .
                Article
                00016
                10.1213/XAA.0000000000001263
                7323820
                Copyright © 2020 International Anesthesia Research Society

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

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