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      Surgical strategy of bilateral synchronous sporadic renal cell carcinoma—experience of a Chinese university hospital

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          The objective of this study is to investigate the optimal therapeutic protocol for BSSRCC.


          A total of 32 BSSRCC patients, including 28 males and 4 females, were enrolled the study from January 2004 to May 2016. The diagnoses were defined by the measurements of CT, ultrasound, and MRI. Patients with hereditary syndrome were excluded. The management of surgical manner, operation staging, and sequence were scheduled in accordance with the tumor’s location and size (based on Zhongshan score, ZS score), as well as the performance status of the patients. Among them, 8 cases were conducted with bilateral surgical procedure simultaneously and 24 cases were implemented with staged operations. NSS on the one side with contralateral RN, and NSS on both sides were performed in 17 and 15 patients separately.


          Thirty cases were conducted 56 operations in total. The average operation time was 260 ± 52 min in simultaneous operations and 162 ± 40 min in staged operations. The length of hospital stay in average was 11.5 ± 1.8 and 7.5 ± 1.4 days, respectively. Twenty-eight cases were followed up by 6–138 months. The level of creatinine was elevated in 5 cases without hemodialysis conducted.


          The location and size of the carcinomas, and the performance status of patients should be considered in determination of an appropriate surgical approach. Both renal function preservation and tumor eradication were similarly critical, whereas the latter is of more importance. ZS score may be helpful in the dilemma. Longer follow-up period and more patient enrolment are required.

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          Reporting and grading of complications after urologic surgical procedures: an ad hoc EAU guidelines panel assessment and recommendations.

          The incidence of postoperative complications is still the most frequently used surrogate marker of quality in surgery, but no standard guidelines or criteria exist for reporting surgical complications in the area of urology. To review the available reporting systems used for urologic surgical complications, to establish a possible change in attitude towards reporting of complications using standardised systems, to assess systematically the Clavien-Dindo system when used for the reporting of complications related to urologic surgical procedures, to identify shortcomings in reporting complications, and to propose recommendations for the development and implementation of future reporting systems that are focused on patient-centred outcomes. Standardised systems for reporting and classification of surgical complications were identified through a systematic review of the literature. To establish a possible change in attitude towards reporting of complications related to urologic procedures, we performed a systematic literature search of all papers reporting complications after urologic surgery published in European Urology, Journal of Urology, Urology, BJU International, and World Journal of Urology in 1999-2000 and 2009-2010. Data identification for the systematic assessment of the Clavien-Dindo system currently used for the reporting of complications related to urologic surgical interventions involved a Medline/Embase search and the search engines of individual urologic journals and publishers using Clavien, urology, and complications as keywords. All selected papers were full-text retrieved and assessed; analysis was done based on structured forms. The systematic review of the literature for standardised systems used for reporting and classification of surgical complications revealed five such systems. As far as the attitude of urologists towards reporting of complications, a shift could be seen in the number of studies using most of the Martin criteria, as well as in the number of studies using either standardised criteria or the Clavien-Dindo system. The latter system was not properly used in 72 papers (35.3%). Uniformed reporting of complications after urologic procedures will aid all those involved in patient care and scientific publishing (authors, reviewers, and editors). It will also contribute to the improvement of the scientific quality of papers published in the field of urologic surgery. When reporting the outcomes of urologic procedures, the committee proposes a series of quality criteria. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Clinicopathological features and prognosis of synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma: an international multicentre experience.

            To present a multicentre experience and the largest cohort to date of nonmetastatic (N0M0) synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC), as because it is rare the single-institutional experience is limited. We retrospectively studied 10 337 patients from 12 urological centres to identify patients with N0M0 synchronous bilateral RCC; the clinicopathological features and cancer-specific survival were compared to a cohort treated for N0M0 unilateral RCC. In all, 153 patients had synchronous bilateral solid renal tumours, of whom 135 (88%) had synchronous bilateral RCC, 118 with nonmetastatic disease; 91% had nonfamilial bilateral RCC. Bilateral clear cell RCC was the major histological subtype (76%), and papillary RCC was the next most frequent (19%). Multifocality was found in 54% of bilateral RCCs. Compared with unilateral RCC, patients did not differ in Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) and T classification, but bilateral RCCs were more frequently multifocal (54% vs 16%, P < 0.001) and of the papillary subtype (19% vs 12%), and less frequently clear cell RCC (76% vs 83%, P = 0.005). For the outcome, patients with nonmetastatic synchronous bilateral RCC and unilateral RCC had a similar prognosis (P = 0.63); multifocality did not affect survival (P = 0.60). Multivariate analysis identified ECOG PS, T classification, and Fuhrman grade, but not laterality, as independent prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival. Patients with N0M0 synchronous bilateral RCC and N0M0 unilateral RCC have a similar prognosis. The frequency of a familial history for RCC (von Hippel-Lindau disease or familial RCC) was significantly greater in bilateral synchronous than in unilateral RCC. The significant pathological findings in synchronous bilateral RCC are papillary subtype and multifocality.
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              Bilateral non-familial renal cell carcinoma.

              Bilateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exists in hereditary forms (von Hippel-Lindau disease, hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma, and hereditary clear cell renal carcinoma) associated with various chromosomal abnormalities, and non-hereditary, apparently sporadic forms. The focus of this study is the clinical description of the latter entity.

                Author and article information

                +86-13681971306 ,
                +86-13681973920 ,
                World J Surg Oncol
                World J Surg Oncol
                World Journal of Surgical Oncology
                BioMed Central (London )
                28 February 2017
                28 February 2017
                : 15
                ISNI 0000 0001 0125 2443, GRID grid.8547.e, Department of Urology, Zhongshan Hospital, , Fudan University, ; 180 Fenglin Rd, Shanghai, 200032 China
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                zs score, synchronous, radical nephrectomy, nephron-sparing surgery, kidney neoplasm


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