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      Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Detected in Mountain Gorilla Respiratory Outbreaks

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          Abstract

          Respiratory illness (RI) accounts for a large proportion of mortalities in mountain gorillas ( Gorilla beringei beringei), and fatal outbreaks, including disease caused by human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infections, have heightened concern about the risk of human pathogen transmission to this endangered species, which is not only critically important to the biodiversity of its ecosystem but also to the economies of the surrounding human communities. Our goal was to conduct a molecular epidemiologic study to detect the presence of HRSV and HMPV in fecal samples from wild human-habituated free-ranging mountain gorillas in Rwanda and to evaluate the role of these viruses in RI outbreaks. Fecal samples were collected from gorillas with clinical signs of RI between June 2012 and February 2013 and tested by real-time and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays; comparison fecal samples were obtained from gorillas without clinical signs of RI sampled during the 2010 Virunga gorilla population census. PCR assays detected HMPV and HRSV first in spiked samples; subsequently, HRSV-A, the worldwide-circulating ON1 genotype, was detected in 12 of 20 mountain gorilla fecal samples collected from gorillas with RI during outbreaks, but not in samples from animals without respiratory illness. Our findings confirmed that pathogenic human respiratory viruses are transmitted to gorillas and that they are repeatedly introduced into mountain gorilla populations from people, attesting to the need for stringent biosecurity measures for the protection of gorilla health.

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          Most cited references 66

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          MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput.

           Robert Edgar (2004)
          We describe MUSCLE, a new computer program for creating multiple alignments of protein sequences. Elements of the algorithm include fast distance estimation using kmer counting, progressive alignment using a new profile function we call the log-expectation score, and refinement using tree-dependent restricted partitioning. The speed and accuracy of MUSCLE are compared with T-Coffee, MAFFT and CLUSTALW on four test sets of reference alignments: BAliBASE, SABmark, SMART and a new benchmark, PREFAB. MUSCLE achieves the highest, or joint highest, rank in accuracy on each of these sets. Without refinement, MUSCLE achieves average accuracy statistically indistinguishable from T-Coffee and MAFFT, and is the fastest of the tested methods for large numbers of sequences, aligning 5000 sequences of average length 350 in 7 min on a current desktop computer. The MUSCLE program, source code and PREFAB test data are freely available at http://www.drive5. com/muscle.
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            A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease

            From 28 young children in the Netherlands, we isolated a paramyxovirus that was identified as a tentative new member of the Metapneumovirus genus based on virological data, sequence homology and gene constellation. Previously, avian pneumovirus was the sole member of this recently assigned genus, hence the provisional name for the newly discovered virus: human metapneumovirus. The clinical symptoms of the children from whom the virus was isolated were similar to those caused by human respiratory syncytial virus infection, ranging from upper respiratory tract disease to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Serological studies showed that by the age of five years, virtually all children in the Netherlands have been exposed to human metapneumovirus and that the virus has been circulating in humans for at least 50 years.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jkmazet@ucdavis.edu
                Journal
                Ecohealth
                Ecohealth
                Ecohealth
                Springer US (New York )
                1612-9202
                1612-9210
                20 December 2020
                20 December 2020
                : 1-12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.27860.3b, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9684, Karen C. Drayer Wildlife Health Center, One Health Institute, , University of California, ; 1089 Veterinary Medicine Dr., Davis, CA 95616 USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.508041.8, Gorilla Doctors, , Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project Inc, ; Davis, CA USA
                [3 ]GRID grid.508043.a, Gorilla Doctors, , Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project Inc, ; Musanze, Rwanda
                [4 ]GRID grid.508147.f, ISNI 0000 0000 9490 3868, Rwanda Development Board, ; Kigali, Rwanda
                [5 ]GRID grid.467700.2, ISNI 0000 0001 2182 2028, National Zoological Park, SCBI Global Health Program, ; Washington, DC USA
                [6 ]One Health Approach for Conservation, Gorilla Health, Kigali, Rwanda
                Article
                1506
                10.1007/s10393-020-01506-8
                7750032
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100001250, Morris Animal Foundation;
                Award ID: D14ZO-404
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100009752, Karen C. Drayer Wildlife Health Center;
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100009751, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis;
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000200, United States Agency for International Development;
                Award ID: GHN-A-OO-09-00010-00
                Funded by: University of California Global Health Institute
                Categories
                Original Contribution

                Public health

                one health, rwanda, human–wildlife interface, mountain gorillas, hrsv, respiratory disease

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