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      Review article: Use of ultrasound in the developing world

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          Abstract

          As portability and durability improve, bedside, clinician-performed ultrasound is seeing increasing use in rural, underdeveloped parts of the world. Physicians, nurses and medical officers have demonstrated the ability to perform and interpret a large variety of ultrasound exams, and a growing body of literature supports the use of point-of-care ultrasound in developing nations. We review, by region, the existing literature in support of ultrasound use in the developing world and training guidelines currently in use, and highlight indications for emergency ultrasound in the developing world. We suggest future directions for bedside ultrasound use and research to improve diagnostic capacity and patient care in the most remote areas of the globe.

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          Most cited references 86

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          The respiratory variation in inferior vena cava diameter as a guide to fluid therapy.

          To investigate whether the respiratory variation in inferior vena cava diameter (DeltaD(IVC)) could be related to fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients. Prospective clinical study. Medical ICU of a non-university hospital. Mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock (n=39). Volume loading with 8 mL/kg of 6% hydroxyethylstarch over 20 min. Cardiac output and DeltaD(IVC) were assessed by echography before and immediately after the standardized volume load. Volume loading induced an increase in cardiac output from 5.7+/-2.0 to 6.4+/-1.9 L/min (P or =15% (responders). Before volume loading, the DeltaD(IVC) was greater in responders than in non-responders (25+/-15 vs 6+/-4%, P<0.001), closely correlated with the increase in cardiac output (r=0.82, P<0.001), and a 12% DeltaD(IVC) cut-off value allowed identification of responders with positive and negative predictive values of 93% and 92%, respectively. Analysis of DeltaD(IVC) is a simple and non-invasive method to detect fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock.
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            Estimating child mortality due to diarrhoea in developing countries.

            The major objective of this study is to provide estimates of diarrhoea mortality at country, regional and global level by employing the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) standard. A systematic and comprehensive literature review was undertaken of all studies published since 1980 reporting under-5 diarrhoea mortality. Information was collected on characteristics of each study and its population. A regression model was used to relate these characteristics to proportional mortality from diarrhoea and to predict its distribution in national populations. Global deaths from diarrhoea of children aged less than 5 years were estimated at 1.87 million (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.56-2.19), approximately 19% of total child deaths. WHO African and South-East Asia Regions combined contain 78% (1.46 million) of all diarrhoea deaths occurring among children in the developing world; 73% of these deaths are concentrated in just 15 developing countries. Planning and evaluation of interventions to control diarrhoea deaths and to reduce under-5 mortality is obstructed by the lack of a system that regularly generates cause-of-death information. The methods used here provide country-level estimates that constitute alternative information for planning in settings without adequate data.
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              Emergency medical care in developing countries: is it worthwhile?

              Prevention is a core value of any health system. Nonetheless, many health problems will continue to occur despite preventive services. A significant burden of diseases in developing countries is caused by time-sensitive illnesses and injuries, such as severe infections, hypoxia caused by respiratory infections, dehydration caused by diarrhoea, intentional and unintentional injuries, postpartum bleeding, and acute myocardial infarction. The provision of timely treatment during life-threatening emergencies is not a priority for many health systems in developing countries. This paper reviews evidence indicating the need to develop and/or strengthen emergency medical care systems in these countries. An argument is made for the role of emergency medical care in improving the health of populations and meeting expectations for access to emergency care. We consider emergency medical care in the community, during transportation, and at first-contact and regional referral facilities. Obstacles to developing effective emergency medical care include a lack of structural models, inappropriate training foci, concerns about cost, and sustainability in the face of a high demand for services. A basic but effective level of emergency medical care responds to perceived and actual community needs and improves the health of populations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Emerg Med
                International Journal of Emergency Medicine
                Springer
                1865-1380
                2011
                7 December 2011
                : 4
                : 72
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Emergency Medicine, Brown University, 593 Eddy Street, Providence RI, 02903, USA
                [2 ]Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center,1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington, USA
                Article
                1865-1380-4-72
                10.1186/1865-1380-4-72
                3285529
                22152055
                Copyright ©2011 Sippel et al; licensee Springer.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Emergency medicine & Trauma

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