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      A new species of Micrurapteryx (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) feeding on Thermopsis lanceolata (Fabaceae) in southern Siberia and its hymenopterous parasitoids

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          Abstract

          A new species of leaf-mining moth described here as Micrurapteryx baranchikovi Kirichenko, Akulov & Triberti, sp. nov. was detected in large numbers feeding on Thermopsis lanceolata (Fabaceae) in the Republic of Khakassia (Russia) in 2020. A morphological diagnosis of adults, bionomics and DNA barcoding data of the new species are provided. The developmental stages (larva, pupa, adult), male and female genitalia, as well as the leaf mines and the infestation plot in Khakassia are illustrated; the pest status of the new species in the studied region is discussed. Additionally, parasitism rate was estimated, the parasitoid wasps reared from pupae of the new species were identified (morphologically and genetically) and illustrated . Among them, one ichneumonid, Campoplex sp. aff. borealis (Zetterstedt) and two braconids, Agathis fuscipennis (Zetterstedt) and Illidops subversor (Tobias et Kotenko), are novel records for the Republic of Khakassia. Furthermore, they are all documented as parasitoids of Gracillariidae for the first time. The DNA barcode of A. fuscipennis is newly obtained and can be used as a reference sequence for species identification.

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          MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            DNA Barcoding: Error Rates Based on Comprehensive Sampling

            Introduction The Controversy DNA barcoding, the recently proposed DNA-based project for species identification, has attracted much attention and controversy [1–6]. Proponents envision that a short fragment of DNA can be used to diagnose taxa, increasing the speed, objectivity, and efficiency of species identification. Initial tests of genetic barcoding using mitochondrial markers on animals reported near-100% accuracy, indicating that the method can be highly accurate under certain conditions [1,7,8]. Accurate species identification—assignment of an unknown to a known—requires a comprehensive comparative molecular database against which unknowns can be compared. However, it is clear that most of the biological diversity in the world is undocumented [9,10]. Therefore, a stated second goal of DNA barcoding is to facilitate the species-discovery process [11–13]. Such a proposal has raised the concern of the systematics community, which claims that adopting barcoding would be a step backwards [14–16], returning taxonomy to typology [17]. Opponents also note that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences alone may be insufficient to diagnose species, because genetic differentiation does not necessarily track species boundaries [18,19]. Thus, Funk and Omland [20] found that ca. 23% of surveyed metazoan species are genetically polyphyletic or paraphyletic, implying that they would not be differentiable by barcoding techniques. What Does Accuracy Depend on? The Barcoding “Gap” The critical issue in barcoding is accuracy. How well does a single gene sequence perform in delineating and identifying species? Accuracy depends especially on the extent of, and separation between, intraspecific variation and interspecific divergence in the selected marker. The more overlap there is between genetic variation within species and divergence separating sister species, the less effective barcoding becomes. Initial efforts to test barcoding suggested a significant barcoding “gap” between intra- and interspecific variation, but these efforts have greatly undersampled both intraspecific variation (mostly 1–2 individuals per species sampled) and interspecific divergence (because of incomplete or geographically restricted sampling) [1,7,8]. Overlap between Intra- versus Interspecific Variation When the coalescent has yet to sort between incipient species (ancestral polymorphism), intraspecific variation overlaps with interspecific divergence and gives rise to genetically polyphyletic or paraphyletic species (Figure 1) [18,21,22]. When such overlap is real (i.e., not the result of poor taxonomy), then that marker cannot reliably distinguish among those species. Overlap between intraspecific and interspecific variation can also occur broadly within a tree, even when each species is reciprocally monophyletic to all others. This occurs when intraspecific variation in parts of the tree exceeds interspecific divergence in other parts of the tree—i.e., when the range of intra- and interspecific variation overlaps. Such overlap will not affect identification of unknowns in a thoroughly sampled tree, where they should fall within the coalescent of already characterized species. However, such overlap can have a substantial impact during the discovery phase (i.e., in an incompletely sampled group), as the status of unknowns that fall outside the coalescent of previously sampled species is problematic to evaluate. Gap versus Overlap: The Efficacy of Thresholds The proposed mechanism for the evaluation of unknowns within a partially sampled phylogeny is through the implementation of thresholds, chosen to separate intraspecific variation from interspecific differences. An unknown differing from an existing sample by less than a threshold value is assumed to represent that species, but one differing from existing sequences by more than the threshold value is assumed to represent a new taxon. This method is vulnerable to both false positives and false negatives. False positives are the identification of spurious novel taxa (splitting) within a species whose intraspecific variation extends deeper than the threshold value; false negatives are inaccurate identification (lumping) within a cluster of taxa whose interspecific divergences are shallower than the proposed value. The accuracy of a threshold-based approach critically depends upon the level of overlap between intra- and interspecific variation across a phylogeny. While Hebert et al. [7] suggest that a wide gap between intra- and interspecific variation makes a threshold approach promising (Figure 2A), Moritz and Cicero [23] argue that the overlap is considerably greater when a larger proportion of closely related taxa are included, making the method problematic (Figure 2B). To evaluate the performance of this method, we need to assess the extent of and overlap between intra- and interspecific genetic variation comprehensively, within a thoroughly sampled clade [23,24]. Here we present the first dataset sufficiently comprehensive to robustly evaluate the efficacy of DNA barcoding: the cowrie genetic database [25,26]. This dataset includes sequences from >2,000 individuals in 263 taxa, representing >93% of recognized cowrie (marine gastropods of the family Cypraeidae) species worldwide, with multiple individuals from >80%, and at least five individuals from >50% of the taxa. These data provide near comprehensive sister-species coverage, and a broad survey of intraspecific variation. We use this dataset to address several questions. How accurate is molecular identification of unknowns in a thoroughly sampled tree? What are the reasons for failures in such identifications? How much do intraspecific variation and interspecific divergence overlap across this well-sampled phylogeny? How much error is associated with threshold-based identifications, and what threshold value minimizes this error? Finally we use data from two smaller but similarly exhaustively sampled clades (of limpets [27] and turbinid gastropods [28]), to evaluate the generality of these patterns. Cowries encompass a diversity of species attributes: recent versus ancient, planktonic versus direct development, common versus rare, and large Indo-west Pacific-wide ranges versus single island endemics. All cowries have internal fertilization, mostly with feeding larvae, whereas limpets and turbinids are external fertilizers, with non-feeding larvae. While all three examples are gastropods, their range of species attributes implies that these findings are likely applicable to a wide range of taxa. The effectiveness of barcoding is critically dependent upon species delineation: splitting decreases while lumping increases both intraspecific variation and interspecific divergence. Taxonomically, cowries are one of the most extensively studied marine gastropod families, both morphologically [29–33] and genetically [25,26], thus their species are well circumscribed. We analyze and compare barcoding performance for two types of species-level taxa based on different levels of taxonomic analysis: (1) traditional, morphological species, as defined by the most recent morphology-based revision [33], and (2) evolutionary significant units (ESUs), as defined through an integrative taxonomic analysis of combined and extensively sampled genetic and morphological data (slightly modified from [25,26]). We thus compare the efficacy of barcoding across a 2 × 2 matrix: performance with traditional species versus ESUs in an identification versus discovery setting. Traditional species provide a test of barcoding when substantial morphological information is available, but remain untested with genetic tools. This level of knowledge is comparable to biotic checklists, which are often used to guide sampling in barcoding efforts. In contrast, ESUs provide the best of integrative taxonomy, a system where population-level and geographically extensive genetic sampling has tested species-level boundaries described by extensive morphological studies. Because ESUs are defined as reciprocally monophyletic units, they exclude the possibility of, and errors associated with, paraphyletic or polyphyletic species, and thus provide the optimal units for barcoding. Given that at present their reciprocal monophyletic status is based on the same genetic marker used for barcoding, they should lead to 100% accuracy in species identification tests. Presently, cowrie ESUs exclude potentially valid, young species that are not reciprocally monophyletic in cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences; however, additional work may demonstrate some of these to be valid species. ESUs fulfill the phylogenetic species concept; however, we choose to recognize them only as ESUs, to emphasize that although they are genetically divergent and distinctive, they all are not, or destined to become, biological species. The correspondence between ESU definitions and traditional morphological taxonomy is high. Remarkably, 255 ESUs (97%) have been recognized previously at either the specific or subspecific level and are therefore supported by independent morphological criteria in addition to molecular data. Only eight ESUs are genetically distinct but have not been previously recognized by traditional taxonomy; all of these are allopatric, genetically divergent lineages. So defined, the 263 ESUs sampled include >93% of the 233 recognized cowrie species and 56 recognized subspecies. From here on, we use “ESU” to denote taxa recognized through an integrated approach with the aid of molecular criteria, and “species” to refer to taxa recognized at that level in traditional cowrie taxonomy. The same definition led to the recognition of 12 ESUs in the Patelloida profunda group of limpets [27] and 30 ESUs in the Astralium rhodostomum complex of turbinid gastropods [28]. In both groups traditional taxonomic study lags substantially behind cowries, and many ESUs represent undescribed, but morphologically recognizable, species. Results/Discussion Accuracy in Thoroughly Sampled Phylogenies: Identification Identification of unknowns against a thoroughly sampled phylogeny was prone to error when traditional species were utilized, but accurate when ESUs formed the basis of the phylogeny. Assignment of unknowns to a phylogeny comprised of exemplars of every traditional species was correct 80% of the time using a neighbor-joining approach (see Materials and Methods). Eight percent of the assignments were incorrect, while 12% were ambiguous, with the unknown falling as sister to a clade comprised of its species plus its sister species. Parsimony analyses were unambiguously correct 79%, incorrect 7%, and ambiguous 10% of the time, while the correct placement was one of multiple, equally parsimonious placements in 4% of the cases. Ambiguous assignments also represent failures of the barcoding method, as although the unknowns “belong” to sampled species, they fall outside of that species as characterized by an exemplar approach, and could represent a novel taxon. This approximately 20% failure rate at the species level is consistent with Funk and Omland's [20] assessment that 23% of metazoan species are not monophyletic. In contrast, identification of unknowns was 98% accurate with a neighbor-joining approach against an ESU phylogeny. Similar analyses of turbinid and limpet datasets had success rates of 100% and 99%, respectively. These results are not unexpected, however, as the reciprocal monophyly criteria for circumscribing units predisposed the system for success. More surprising is the 2% failure rate (1% each from incorrect assignment and ambiguity). In these incorrect identifications, improper assignment involved a recently derived sister ESU. These failures occur because only a single exemplar was used to define ESUs in the phylogenies. The rooting of the three-taxon arrangement between the sample, correct ESU, and sister ESU is tenuous, and vulnerable to artifacts of incomplete sampling. If all sequenced haplotypes were included in the analyses, the unknown would have been correctly assigned. Nevertheless, these high success rates are encouraging, particularly since only a single exemplar was used for comparison [34], and many of the divergences between sister taxa are shallow. What are the sources for the 20% failure rate in species-level analyses? Non-monophyly at the species level leads to barcoding failure both in thoroughly sampled and threshold approaches, and represents the greatest challenge for the method. Funk and Omland [20] recognize five reasons for species-level non-monophyly; two of these account for most non-monophyly in cowries: imperfect taxonomy and incomplete lineage sorting. Imperfect taxonomy can cause non-monophyly either through lack of recognition of multiple taxa within a traditional species (overlumping) or when morphotypes are inappropriately recognized as species (oversplitting). Overlumping is common in cowries and readily identified via thorough genetic sampling: 16 recognized cowrie species (7%) are nested ESUs within other, paraphyletic species comprised of multiple ESUs (e.g., Palmadusta artuffeli within P. clandestina; Figure 3). Oversplitting is more difficult to resolve because young species that remain within their sister species' coalescent lead to the same polyphyletic, genetic signature. Of 218 traditional cowrie species tested [25,26], 18 (8%) are polyphyletic with respect to another recognized species. These are either young species (incomplete lineage sorting), or artificially split forms (imperfect taxonomy); additional research is needed to resolve their status. Note that such young species are also neglected by the ESU approach and represent the ultimate limit for barcoding: non-monophyly that cannot be eliminated at the marker (COI) used. Using the ESU concept in hindsight, we can ascribe the failures in our species-level test to artifacts of paraphyly or polyphyly (Figure 1). Ten percent of the failures can be attributed to overlumped, paraphyletic species, while nine percent are the results of either oversplit or young (incompletely sorted) polyphyletic species. The remaining 1% is real error based on single exemplars of the type mentioned previously. The other three causes of species non-monophyly (inadequate phylogenetic information, unrecognized paralogy, and introgression) identified by Funk and Omland [20] are of minor importance in these studies. Since all three gastropod datasets are well circumscribed using morphological, anatomical, geographic, and molecular attributes, we have minimized the problems of inadequate phylogenetic information. We can estimate error rates associated with paralogy and the presence of nuclear copies of mtDNA (NUMTs; [35]). In generating sequence data for 2,026 cowrie individuals, seven sequences (0.3%) have been generated that are thought to be NUMTs, all within three species. Low levels of NUMTs ( 1.5% (=3% threshold), and none have >2% (=4% threshold) (Table 2). Coalescent depths are recorded as nodal depths, and thus are half the value of pairwise distances commonly reported for threshold values. Therefore, if an unknown was >3% divergent from all other samples, we could say with ~98% confidence that it represents an independent evolutionary lineage. Such false-positive errors become rapidly more common at lower thresholds, as 20%, 15%, 11% of ESUs (with n ≥ 10, n ≥ 5, and n ≥ 2 samples/ESU) have coalescent depths >1% (=2% threshold). In turbinids and limpets, all coalescent depths are 96% in these snails) may be successfully identified by a short fragment of mtDNA. However, even in such extensively studied taxa, a certain percentage of young species (0%–8% in cowries) will not be discernable because of ancestral polymorphism. DNA barcoding is much less effective for identification in taxa where taxonomic scrutiny has not been thorough, and species recognition is limited to a few traditional character sets, untested by additional studies and tools. In such modestly known groups, which represent the bulk of life on Earth, many species will appear to be genetically non-monophyletic because of imperfect taxonomy [20], contributing to a high error rate for barcode-based identification. Thus, to create an effective environment for identification through barcoding, comprehensive, taxonomically thoroughly studied, comparative databases are necessary. The barcoding movement will play a leading role in generating the standards and protocols for establishing these databases, and facilitating their development. The promise of barcoding for species discovery based on methodologies currently proposed should be tempered. The use of thresholds for species delineation is not promising and is strongly discouraged, as levels of overlap between intra- and interspecific differences are likely to be significant in most major clades, particularly within diverse yet poorly documented groups. Thresholds can be effective in screening for substantially divergent novel taxa, but our data indicate such use will overlook at least one-fifth of life's forms that are distinct but less divergent. More elegant methodologies will be required that incorporate principles of population genetics, knowledge of intraspecific variability, and sister group attributes. Identifications or discoveries may be placed within a statistical framework [40], allowing statements such as “based on the data at hand, sample X is 83% likely to be a member of taxon A.” The Data Analysis Working Group (DAWG) associated with the Consortium for the Barcoding of Life (CBOL) is pursuing these analytical challenges. While the barcode is certainly a link out and can provide access to life's encyclopedia, this book needs to be written in collaboration with taxonomists, systematists, and ecologists, in an integrative taxonomic framework [17,41,42]. Barcoding on a global scale can only achieve high accuracy once the majority of evolutionary units have been sampled and taxonomically assessed. This critical first step was achieved for the studied gastropod taxa by centuries of careful, traditional taxonomic consideration (cowries) and large sample sizes (for all three). Without this initial phase, a threshold approach is likely to fail for ~20% of the taxa and individuals at the species discovery phase. Materials and Methods We sequenced 2,026 cowries for 614 bp of COI mtDNA, the traditional Folmer primer region proposed for barcoding most metazoans. Two or more individuals were sequenced from 82% (216) of ESUs, ≥5 from 54% (143), and ≥10 from 23% (60). To maximize recovery of the greatest intraspecific variation and test for geographical structuring, sequences were generated from the most geographically distant populations available. Molecular methods followed standard procedures and are reviewed in Meyer [25,26], Kirkendale and Meyer [27], and Meyer et al. [28]. We used standard, tree-based methods to address accuracy of identification in a thoroughly sampled phylogeny using both a species-level and ESU approach. One exemplar from each recognized species (the nominal subspecies if the species included multiple subspecies) or each identified ESU was used as the reference “barcode” exemplar in topological comparisons. We randomly selected 1,000 sequences from the cowrie COI dataset, excluding barcode exemplars, and limiting representation of each species or ESU to 15 or ten sequences, respectively, to minimize bias toward well-sampled taxa. Hybrid individuals (see above) were excluded. These 1,000 sequences were tested one at a time, and their placement relative to the barcoding exemplars evaluated in both neighbor-joining (K2P) and parsimony phylogenies. Identification was considered correct if the sister taxon of the test sequence was the exemplar sequence of its corresponding species or ESU. Identification was considered incorrect if the sister taxon was wrong. If the random sequence fell below a node linking two recognized sister taxa including the corresponding species, the identification was considered ambiguous, as assignment to one or the other is equivocal, as the unknown could also represent a novel taxon. Similar analyses were performed with the turbinid (n = 200 from 278) and limpet (n = 100 from 125) datasets. Pairwise K2P distances, theta, and coalescent depth were used to characterize intraspecific variation. Genetic distance between terminal taxa and their closest sister was used to characterize interspecific divergence. While the phylogenies used are based upon sequence data from two mtDNA markers (16S and COI: [26–28]), only COI was used for these analyses. The two most genetically distant individuals within each ESU (based on pairwise comparisons) were chosen to bookend genetic diversity and recover coalescent depth (maximum intra-ESU variability). These two individuals replaced the exemplar taxon used to construct the overall phylogeny (Figure 3). A likelihood ratio test (GTR + G with and without a clock enforced) was used to test for clock-like behavior (using only COI) in the resulting tree. A clock could not be falsified for turbinids and limpets (p > 0.05); but was falsified (p = 0.007) for cowries. Coalescent depths and interspecific divergence estimates throughout are based on topologies with a molecular clock enforced, although the overall cowrie data marginally rejected rate constancy. We estimated theta by calculating the average intraspecific difference using K2P distances. All analyses were conducted using PAUP* version 4.0b10 [43]. A listing of ESUs, number of individuals examined, interspecific divergence, and intraspecific metrics can be found in the supporting information for cowries (Table S1), turbinids (Table S2), and limpets (Table S3). Supporting Information Figure S1 Barcoding Overlap in Turbinids (A) Relative distributions of intraspecific variability (coalescent depth—red) and interspecific divergence between ESUs (yellow). Note that the x-axis scale shifts to progressively greater increments above 0.01. (B) Cumulative totals of false positives plus false negatives for each threshold value. The optimum threshold value is between 0.005 or 0.007 (1.0%–1.4%), where error is minimized at 7%. (169 KB EPS). Click here for additional data file. Figure S2 Barcoding Gap in Limpets (A) Relative distributions of intraspecific variability (coalescent depth—red) and interspecific divergence between ESUs (yellow). Note that the x-axis scale shifts to progressively greater increments above 0.01. (B) Cumulative totals of false positives plus false negatives for each threshold value. A gap exists at a threshold of 0.0085 (1.7%), where error is eliminated. (166 KB EPS). Click here for additional data file. Table S1 ESU Listing for Cowries The table contains the taxon name, number of individuals sequenced, interspecific divergence (lineage) depth (GTR + G), coalescent depth (GTR + G), and estimated theta value (K2P). Asterisk (*) denotes direct developers, lacking planktonic larvae. (343 KB DOC). Click here for additional data file. Table S2 ESU Listing for Turbinids The table contains the taxon name, number of individuals sequenced, interspecific divergence (lineage) depth (GTR + G), coalescent depth (GTR + G), and estimated theta value (K2P). (55 KB DOC). Click here for additional data file. Table S3 ESU Listing for Limpets The table contains the taxon name, number of individuals sequenced, interspecific divergence (lineage) depth (GTR + G), coalescent depth (GTR + G), and estimated theta value (K2P). (36 KB DOC). Click here for additional data file. Accession Numbers The GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank) accession numbers for sequences discussed in this paper are: cowrie (AY161637–AY161846, AY534433–AY534503, and DQ206992–DQ207351), limpet (AY628240–AY628327), and turbinid (AY787233–AY787400). The complete datasets are available also by request from CPM or at the Cowrie Genetic Database Web site (http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/cowries).
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              Placebo-Controlled Trial of Cytisine for Smoking Cessation

              Cytisine, a partial agonist that binds with high affinity to the α(4)β(2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, is a low-cost treatment that may be effective in aiding smoking cessation. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of cytisine as compared with placebo. We conducted a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive cytisine or matching placebo for 25 days; participants in both groups received a minimal amount of counseling during the study. The primary outcome measure was sustained, biochemically verified smoking abstinence for 12 months after the end of treatment. Of 1542 adult smokers screened, 740 were enrolled and 370 were randomly assigned to each study group. The rate of sustained 12-month abstinence was 8.4% (31 participants) in the cytisine group as compared with 2.4% (9 participants) in the placebo group (difference, 6.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 9.2; P=0.001). The 7-day point prevalence for abstinence at the 12-month follow-up was 13.2% in the cytisine group versus 7.3% in the placebo group (P=0.01). Gastrointestinal adverse events were reported more frequently in the cytisine group (difference, 5.7 percentage points; 95% CI, 1.2 to 10.2). In this single-center study, cytisine was more effective than placebo for smoking cessation. The lower price of cytisine as compared with that of other pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation may make it an affordable treatment to advance smoking cessation globally.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                ZooKeys
                ZK
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2970
                1313-2989
                October 08 2021
                October 08 2021
                : 1061
                : 131-163
                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.1061.70929
                © 2021

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