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      Lactate Metabolism in Human Lung Tumors.

      Cell

      Elsevier BV

      Warburg effect, Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, Monocarboxylate transport, Metabolic flux analysis, Lung cancer, Lactate, Glycolysis, Cancer metabolism

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          Abstract

          Cancer cells consume glucose and secrete lactate in culture. It is unknown whether lactate contributes to energy metabolism in living tumors. We previously reported that human non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) oxidize glucose in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here, we show that lactate is also a TCA cycle carbon source for NSCLC. In human NSCLC, evidence of lactate utilization was most apparent in tumors with high 18fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and aggressive oncological behavior. Infusing human NSCLC patients with 13C-lactate revealed extensive labeling of TCA cycle metabolites. In mice, deleting monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) from tumor cells eliminated lactate-dependent metabolite labeling, confirming tumor-cell-autonomous lactate uptake. Strikingly, directly comparing lactate and glucose metabolism in vivo indicated that lactate's contribution to the TCA cycle predominates. The data indicate that tumors, including bona fide human NSCLC, can use lactate as a fuel in vivo.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Oncogenic Kras Maintains Pancreatic Tumors through Regulation of Anabolic Glucose Metabolism

          Tumor maintenance relies on continued activity of driver oncogenes, although their rate-limiting role is highly context dependent. Oncogenic Kras mutation is the signature event in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), serving a critical role in tumor initiation. Here, an inducible Kras(G12D)-driven PDAC mouse model establishes that advanced PDAC remains strictly dependent on Kras(G12D) expression. Transcriptome and metabolomic analyses indicate that Kras(G12D) serves a vital role in controlling tumor metabolism through stimulation of glucose uptake and channeling of glucose intermediates into the hexosamine biosynthesis and pentose phosphate pathways (PPP). These studies also reveal that oncogenic Kras promotes ribose biogenesis. Unlike canonical models, we demonstrate that Kras(G12D) drives glycolysis intermediates into the nonoxidative PPP, thereby decoupling ribose biogenesis from NADP/NADPH-mediated redox control. Together, this work provides in vivo mechanistic insights into how oncogenic Kras promotes metabolic reprogramming in native tumors and illuminates potential metabolic targets that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit in PDAC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            p53 regulates mitochondrial respiration.

            The energy that sustains cancer cells is derived preferentially from glycolysis. This metabolic change, the Warburg effect, was one of the first alterations in cancer cells recognized as conferring a survival advantage. Here, we show that p53, one of the most frequently mutated genes in cancers, modulates the balance between the utilization of respiratory and glycolytic pathways. We identify Synthesis of Cytochrome c Oxidase 2 (SCO2) as the downstream mediator of this effect in mice and human cancer cell lines. SCO2 is critical for regulating the cytochrome c oxidase (COX) complex, the major site of oxygen utilization in the eukaryotic cell. Disruption of the SCO2 gene in human cancer cells with wild-type p53 recapitulated the metabolic switch toward glycolysis that is exhibited by p53-deficient cells. That SCO2 couples p53 to mitochondrial respiration provides a possible explanation for the Warburg effect and offers new clues as to how p53 might affect aging and metabolism.
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              LDHA-Associated Lactic Acid Production Blunts Tumor Immunosurveillance by T and NK Cells.

              Elevated lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) expression is associated with poor outcome in tumor patients. Here we show that LDHA-associated lactic acid accumulation in melanomas inhibits tumor surveillance by T and NK cells. In immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice, tumors with reduced lactic acid production (Ldha(low)) developed significantly slower than control tumors and showed increased infiltration with IFN-γ-producing T and NK cells. However, in Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) mice, lacking lymphocytes and NK cells, and in Ifng(-/-) mice, Ldha(low) and control cells formed tumors at similar rates. Pathophysiological concentrations of lactic acid prevented upregulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in T and NK cells, resulting in diminished IFN-γ production. Database analyses revealed negative correlations between LDHA expression and T cell activation markers in human melanoma patients. Our results demonstrate that lactic acid is a potent inhibitor of function and survival of T and NK cells leading to tumor immune escape.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                28985563
                5684706
                10.1016/j.cell.2017.09.019

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