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      Effect of electromagnetic fields and antioxidants on the trace element content of rat teeth

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          Abstract

          The purpose of this study was to examine the possible effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs), from a high-voltage source, on rat teeth in terms of changes in trace elements (TEs) and the effect of antioxidants (melatonin [MLT] and Ganoderma lucidum [GL]) in counteracting these effects. We used adult male Wistar albino rats with a mean weight of 250–300 g and divided the rats into eight groups. The groups were subjected to an ELF-EMF that was applied with a high-voltage line for 8 hours/day for 26 days (Groups I, II, and III) or 52 days (Groups V, VI, and VII). Groups IV and VIII were the 26- and 52-day control/sham groups, respectively. Groups II and VI were treated with GL, and Groups III and VII were treated with MLT. MLT and GL were administered daily based on the weight of the animals and appropriate standards. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized, and their anterior teeth were extracted. The teeth were preserved in pure water before evaluating the major TEs. At the end of the study, TE concentrations (in mg/kg) were assessed in the control and test groups. Compared with Group V, statistically significant differences in the concentrations of zinc (Zn) and strontium (Sr) were found for Group VII (ELF-EMF + MLT) ( P<0.05). Therefore, ELF-EMF exposure can change the content of certain TEs in teeth and, after administering MLT and GL, the values of some of the TEs return to normal.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Ganoderma - a therapeutic fungal biofactory.

          Ganoderma is a basidiomycete white rot fungus which has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries particularly in China, Japan and Korea. A great deal of work has been carried out on Ganoderma lucidum. The common names for preparations include Lingzhi, Munnertake, Sachitake, Reishi and Youngzhi. This review collates the publications detailing activities and compounds by representative species whilst considering the most valid claims of effectiveness. The biological activities reported of preparations from Ganoderma are remarkable and given most emphasis herein as distinct from structure/activity information. The metabolites consist of mainly polysaccharides and terpenoids. Many are activities against the major diseases of our time and so the present review is of great importance. The list of effects is huge ranging from anti-cancer to relieving blockages of the bladder. However, the reports have not all been tested scientifically with the convincing evidence is reserved for assays of pure compounds. It is a prime example of an ancient remedy being of great relevance to the modern era. There does appear to be an assumption that the therapeutic effects attributed to the fungus have been proven. The next step is to produce some effective medicines which may be hampered by problems of mass production.
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            50-Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields enhance cell proliferation and DNA damage: possible involvement of a redox mechanism.

            HL-60 leukemia cells, Rat-1 fibroblasts and WI-38 diploid fibroblasts were exposed for 24-72 h to 0.5-1.0-mT 50-Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF). This treatment induced a dose-dependent increase in the proliferation rate of all cell types, namely about 30% increase of cell proliferation after 72-h exposure to 1.0 mT. This was accompanied by increased percentage of cells in the S-phase after 12- and 48-h exposure. The ability of ELF-EMF to induce DNA damage was also investigated by measuring DNA strand breaks. A dose-dependent increase in DNA damage was observed in all cell lines, with two peaks occurring at 24 and 72 h. A similar pattern of DNA damage was observed by measuring formation of 8-OHdG adducts. The effects of ELF-EMF on cell proliferation and DNA damage were prevented by pretreatment of cells with an antioxidant like alpha-tocopherol, suggesting that redox reactions were involved. Accordingly, Rat-1 fibroblasts that had been exposed to ELF-EMF for 3 or 24 h exhibited a significant increase in dichlorofluorescein-detectable reactive oxygen species, which was blunted by alpha-tocopherol pretreatment. Cells exposed to ELF-EMF and examined as early as 6 h after treatment initiation also exhibited modifications of NF kappa B-related proteins (p65-p50 and I kappa B alpha), which were suggestive of increased formation of p65-p50 or p65-p65 active forms, a process usually attributed to redox reactions. These results suggest that ELF-EMF influence proliferation and DNA damage in both normal and tumor cells through the action of free radical species. This information may be of value for appraising the pathophysiologic consequences of an exposure to ELF-EMF.
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              DNA fragmentation in human fibroblasts under extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure.

              Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) were reported to affect DNA integrity in human cells with evidence based on the Comet assay. These findings were heavily debated for two main reasons; the lack of reproducibility, and the absence of a plausible scientific rationale for how EMFs could damage DNA. Starting out from a replication of the relevant experiments, we performed this study to clarify the existence and explore origin and nature of ELF-EMF induced DNA effects. Our data confirm that intermittent (but not continuous) exposure of human primary fibroblasts to a 50 Hz EMF at a flux density of 1 mT induces a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the Comet assay, and we provide first evidence for this to be caused by the magnetic rather than the electric field. Moreover, we show that EMF-induced responses in the Comet assay are dependent on cell proliferation, suggesting that processes of DNA replication rather than the DNA itself may be affected. Consistently, the Comet effects correlated with a reduction of actively replicating cells and a concomitant increase of apoptotic cells in exposed cultures, whereas a combined Fpg-Comet test failed to produce evidence for a notable contribution of oxidative DNA base damage. Hence, ELF-EMF induced effects in the Comet assay are reproducible under specific conditions and can be explained by minor disturbances in S-phase processes and occasional triggering of apoptosis rather than by the generation of DNA damage.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                04 May 2017
                : 11
                : 1393-1398
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Harran University, Şanlıurfa
                [2 ]Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine
                [3 ]Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry
                [4 ]Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science
                [5 ]Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine
                [6 ]Department of Prosthodontics
                [7 ]Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mehmet Sinan Dogan, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63300, Turkey, Email dtlider@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                dddt-11-1393
                10.2147/DDDT.S132308
                5422323
                © 2017 Dogan et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                elf-emf, tooth, trace element, melatonin, ganoderma lucidum

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