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      Immunoadsorption and Plasma Exchange in Pregnancy

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          Background: During pregnancy, familial hyperlipidemia or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can exacerbate having devastating consequences for both mother and fetus. Immunoadsorption is established for removal of pathogenic proteins lipoproteins or autoantibodies, but this procedure has only rarely been used in pregnancy. Methods: We evaluated retrospectively 126 extracorporeal treatments during six pregnancies. Forty low-density lipoprotein immunoadsorptions, 6 sole plasma exchanges and 36 combined procedures (plasma exchange followed by immunoadsorption) were performed for severe hypertriglyceridemia, complicated by acute pancreatitis. Forty-four IgG immunoadsorptions were executed in 2 pregnant women suffering from SLE with a disastrous course during prior pregnancies. Results: In hyperlipidemic pregnant women, mean triglyceride levels prior to treatment were 3,841 ± 2,076 mg/dl (mean ± SD) and total cholesterol was 617 ± 354 mg/dl. Until delivery, a 27% reduction of triglycerides could be achieved. Clinical and serological signs of pancreatitis disappeared after initiation of extracorporeal therapy. Four healthy babies were delivered (birthweights between 2,250 and 3,360 g). In 1 woman suffering from SLE, intrauterine fetal death occurred in the 22nd week of gestation despite a reduction of cardiolipin antibodies by 69%. The second case (a twin pregnancy) was complicated by steroid-resistant antibody-mediated anemia. Due to frequent immunoadsorptions, red blood cell count improved (reduction of antierythrocyte antibodies by 66.6%) and 2 healthy babies (birthweights 2,120 and 2,350 g) were delivered by cesarean section. Conclusion: Long-term antibody-based immunoadsorption has been demonstrated to be safe and well tolerated in pregnant women and enables normal intrauterine/fetal development. Although rarely indicated during pregnancy, this treatment modality might be a promising new technique for removal of autoantibodies and lipoproteins in patients with serious gestational complications without sufficient response to conventional therapy.

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          Clinical illness due to parvovirus B19 infection after infusion of solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma.

          Lipid-enveloped viruses such as HIV, HBV, and HCV can be inactivated by treatment with solvents and detergents. HAV and human parvovirus B19 lack lipid envelopes and are not inactivated. Solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma (S/D plasma) contains neutralizing antibodies, but it is not known whether the parvovirus B19 antibody content is sufficient to prevent transmission of the disease. A patient is described who developed a clinical illness due to parvovirus B19 infection after the infusion of S/D plasma. A 36-year-old woman with myasthenia gravis underwent five plasma exchange procedures from January 15 to January 25, 1999, using albumin, except for 5 units of SD plasma given because of a low fibrinogen level. Four of the 5 units were implicated in a recall after high levels of parvovirus B19 DNA were found in several lots. Two weeks after the infusion, the patient developed fatigue, a rash, and severe polyarthralgias. Parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM antibody titers were consistent with an acute infection. Clinically apparent parvovirus B19 infection can follow the use of S/D plasma that contains high levels of parvovirus B19 DNA.
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            Pregnancy outcome in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

            The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes and complications of parenteral nutrition during pregnancy in our institution. This study was a review of medical records of all women who required parenteral nutrition during pregnancy at our institution from 1990-1997. The frequency of maternal and perinatal complications was calculated. Twenty-six pregnancies required parenteral nutrition for the following indications: hyperemesis gravidarum (n = 16), cholecystitis/pancreatitis (n = 3), small bowel obstruction (n = 2), intracranial bleed (n = 2), ulcerative colitis (n = 1), and other (n = 2). The mean gestational age at initiation of therapy was 16.2 weeks and the mean duration of therapy was 30.6 days. Five pregnancies were terminated prior to fetal viability. Of the remaining pregnancies, obstetric complications occurred in 11, including two cases of idiopathic preterm labor resulting in preterm deliveries. Maternal complications resulting from the central venous catheters included four infections, two thromboses, one occlusion, one pneumothorax, and one catheter dislodgment. The complication rate for centrally inserted central catheters (50%) was significantly greater than the rate for peripherally inserted central catheters (9%). Successful outcomes can be achieved in obstetric patients requiring parenteral nutrition. In this group of patients, the frequency of maternal complications secondary to centrally inserted central venous catheters was greater than that reported in nonpregnant patients. Peripherally inserted central catheters may be preferable when parenteral nutrition is required during pregnancy.
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              Successful Pregnancy and Delivery in a Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Treated with Immunoadsorption Therapy and Cyclosporin A: CASE REPORT


                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                08 November 2002
                : 25
                : 4
                : 232-239
                aDepartment of Medicine III, Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, and bDepartment of Gynecology, University of Vienna, Austria
                66343 Kidney Blood Press Res 2002;25:232–239
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 36, Pages: 8
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