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      Renal in situ Hybridization Studies of Extracellular Matrix Related Molecules in Type 1 Diabetes mellitus

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          Abstract

          Background/Aim: Progressive expansion of mesangial matrix and glomerular basement membrane thickening represent alterations in the balance between synthesis and degradation of glomerular extracellular matrix (ECM) protein and are hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy. In order to elucidate the basis for this imbalance between the synthesis and the degradation of ECM in renal tissues from patients of type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1D) with diabetic nephropathy (DN), we examined the expression of α1 chain of type IV collagen (IV-C), matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -3 (MMP-2, MMP-3), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and β-actin mRNA using a high-resolution in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide. Methods: Patients were divided into two groups based on both of degree of mesangial expansion using electron microscopic point counting morphometric methods and duration of type 1D: 7 ‘fast-track’ patients were selected for their very rapid development of DN structural changes and 8 ‘slow-track’ patients for their very slow development of DN structural changes. Seven normal human kidney (NHK) tissues were used as controls. Results: Positive cells for each mRNA were observed in glomerular resident cells, including glomerular mesangial, epithelial and endothelial cells and cells of Bowman’s capsule. The percentage of glomerular cells positive for IV-C, MMP-2 and MMP-3 mRNA was significantly greater in the ‘slow-track’ vs. ‘fast-track’ patients. No significant differences in percentage positive cells was seen for β-actin mRNA. Furthermore, to elucidate the total number of positive cells per glomerulus for each mRNA, we estimated total cell number of glomerulus using morphometric techniques on light microscopy tissues. The total cell number per glomerulus was significantly greater in ‘fast-track’ than that in ‘slow-track’ patients and NHK. The total number of positive cells per glomerulus for MMP-2 in NHK was significantly greater than that in ‘slow-track’ and ‘fast-track’ patients. Conclusion: Thus, IV-C, MMP-2, MMP-3 and TIMP-1 mRNA are expressed in resident glomerular cells in renal tissues from NHK and type 1D. Glomerular alterations in these in situ mRNA expressions sufficient to explain ECM accumulation and DN risk were not uncovered. These largely negative results could be due to methodologic quantitative imprecision or could indicate that post-translational differences account for ECM imbalance in DN. However, these studies make it clear that unraveling the nature of the ECM production/removal imbalance in DN will require careful consideration of alterations in glomerular cell number.

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          Metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in matrix remodeling.

          The matrix metalloproteinases are a tightly regulated family of enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix and basement membrane components. Recent evidence suggests that these proteases and their specific inhibitors play important roles in normal developmental processes and in pathological conditions. Interestingly, experiments designed to improve our understanding of metalloproteinase regulation have also resulted in new insights into mechanisms by which growth factors and proto-oncogenes may regulate biological processes.
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            Metalloproteinases in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              NEF
              Nephron
              10.1159/issn.1660-8151
              Nephron
              S. Karger AG
              1660-8151
              2235-3186
              2002
              September 2002
              26 September 2002
              : 92
              : 3
              : 564-572
              Affiliations
              aDivision of Nephrology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Isehara, Kanagawa, Japan; bPediatrics Nephrology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn., USA
              Article
              64110 Nephron 2002;92:564–572
              10.1159/000064110
              12372938
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 38, Pages: 9
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/64110
              Categories
              Original Paper

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