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      Penetration of Cement Pastes into Particle-Beds: A Comparison of Penetration Models

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          Abstract

          For the selective paste intrusion (SPI) method, thin layers of aggregate are locally bound by cement paste where the structure shall arise. After completion of the printing process, the structure is excavated from the particle-bed and the unbound particles are removed. However, for a sufficient layer bonding and shape accuracy, the rheology of the cement paste must be adapted to the flow resistance of the particle-bed. For practical application, that means mostly time and material consuming “trial and error” tests. To prevent that, analytical models can help to predict the penetration of the cement paste. This paper presents four analytical models to calculate the penetration depth of a cement paste into a particle packing. Based on Darcy’s law, an already existing model is slightly modified (model A+) and a generalized (model C), an advanced generalized (model D) as well as a simplified model (model B/B+) are developed. Compared to conducted tests on the penetration depth, model B showed good accuracy (deviation <1.5 mm) for pastes with a yield stress ≥8.2 Pa, model A+/B+/C for ≥ 5.4 Pa and model D even for <5.4 Pa. Finally, an application guide for each model for practical use will be given.

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          Konsistenzmessungen von Gummi-Benzollösungen

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            Extending Predictive Capabilities to Network Models

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              Large-scale 3D printing of ultra-high performance concrete – a new processing route for architects and builders

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                materials
                Materials
                MDPI
                1996-1944
                14 January 2021
                January 2021
                : 14
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Chair of Materials Science and Testing, Centre for Building Materials (CBM), Technical University of Munich, 81245 Munich, Germany; gehlen@ 123456tum.de
                [2 ]L2MGC, EA4114, CY Cergy Paris Université, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise, France; alexandre.pierre@ 123456cyu.fr
                [3 ]Institut de Recherche Dupuy de Lôme (IRDL), Université de Bretagne Sud, UMR CNRS 6027, IRDL, 56100 Lorient, France; arnaud.perrot@ 123456univ-ubs.fr
                [4 ]Institute of Building Materials, Concrete Construction and Fire Safety (iBMB), Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany; d.lowke@ 123456ibmb.tu-bs.de
                Author notes
                Article
                materials-14-00389
                10.3390/ma14020389
                7829847
                33466872
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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