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      Effects of 5G mobile phone radiofrequency radiation exposure on male mouse fertility

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          Abstract

          Objective To clarify the effects of 5G mobile phone radiofrequency radiation exposure on male mouse fertility and to preliminarily explore the underlying mechanisms.

          Methods Healthy male C57BL/6 mice aged 7-8 weeks were randomly assigned to Sham group, 3.5 GHz radiofrequency radiation group, and 4.9 GHz radiofrequency radiation group, with 16 mice in each group. The mice were exposed to 3.5 GHz or 4.9 GHz mobile phone radiofrequency radiation for 42 consecutive days (1 h per day). The sperm quality was evaluated using sperm count, deformity rate, and motility. H&E staining was performed to assess testicular tissue structure by observing the morphology of spermatogenic cells at various development stages, the diameter of seminiferous tubules, and the thickness of seminiferous epithelium. The sperm mitochondrial function was assessed using sperm mitochondrial membrane potential and testicular ATP content. The fertility of mice was evaluated through fertility rate, litter size, and survival rate of offspring. The underlying mechanisms were explored by detecting the methylation of LRGUK gene and its mRNA and protein levels.

          Results Compared with the Sham group, there were no significant changes in sperm count in the 3.5 GHz and 4.9 GHz groups; however, the sperm abnormality rate significantly increased ( P < 0.05) and sperm motility significantly decreased ( P < 0.05). The structure of testicular tissue, the function of sperm mitochondria, and fertility of mice showed no significant changes as compared with the Sham group. The methylation level of LRGUK gene in the testes significantly increased, while the mRNA and protein expression levels significantly decreased.

          Conclusion Exposure to 3.5 GHz and 4.9 GHz mobile phone radiofrequency radiation for 42 consecutive days can lead to an increase in sperm deformity rate and a decrease in sperm motility in mice, but has no significant effect on fertility, which may be related to an increase in methylation level of the LRGUK gene in the testes.

          Abstract

          摘要: 目的 明确 5G 手机射频辐射暴露对雄鼠生育力的影响, 并初步探讨其机制。 方法 将 7 ~ 8 周龄健康雄性 C57BL/6 小鼠随机分为 Sham 组、3.5 GHz RFR 组和 4.9 GHz RFR 组, 每组 16 只, 分别用 3.5 GHz 和 4.9 GHz 的手机 射频辐射连续暴露 42 d, 每天 1 h。通过检测精子数量、畸形率和活力评估精子质量;通过 HE 染色观察各级生精细胞 形态、生精小管直径、生精上皮厚度评估睾丸组织结构;通过精子线粒体膜电位和睾丸 ATP 含量评估精子线粒体功 能;通过生育率、产仔数和仔鼠存活率评估小鼠的生育力;通过检测 LRGUK 基因甲基化水平、mRNA 和蛋白水平对 机制进行探索。 结果 与 Sham 组相比, 3.5 GHz RFR 组和 4.9 GHz RFR 组的精子数量无明显变化, 精子畸形率显著 升高, 精子活力显著降低;睾丸组织结构无明显改变;精子线粒体功能无明显变化;小鼠生育力无明显变化;睾丸内 LRGUK 基因的甲基化水平显著升高, mRNA 和蛋白表达水平显著降低。 结论 3.5 GHz 和 4.9 GHz 的手机射频辐射 连续暴露 42 d 可导致小鼠精子畸形率升高, 精子活力降低, 但对小鼠的生育力无明显影响, 这可能与睾丸 LRGUK 基 因的甲基化水平升高有关。

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CJRH
          Chinese Journal of Radiological Health
          Chinese Preventive Medical Association (Ji’an, China )
          1004-714X
          01 April 2024
          01 May 2024
          : 33
          : 2
          : 135-141
          Affiliations
          [1] 1Department of Radiation Protection Medicine, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an 710032 China
          Author notes
          Corresponding author: DING Guirong, E-mail: dingzhao@ 123456fmmu.edu.cn
          Article
          j.issn.1004-714X.2024.02.005
          10.13491/j.issn.1004-714X.2024.02.005
          24e60159-91ad-449b-9d16-bd8ca0c91fd3
          © 2024 Chinese Journal of Radiological Health

          This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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          Categories
          Journal Article

          Medicine,Image processing,Radiology & Imaging,Bioinformatics & Computational biology,Health & Social care,Public health
          Radiofrequency radiation,Methylation,Deformity rate,Sperm motility,Fertility,Mobile phone

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