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      The TGFβ1-Induced Fibronectin in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells Is p38 MAP Kinase Dependent and Smad Independent

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          Abstract

          Background/Aim: Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) is a fibrokine implicated in the progression of renal fibrosis. Following TGFβ1 receptor activation, a number of signalling pathways are stimulated. This study investigates the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and Smad pathways in the TGFβ1-induced fibronectin (FN) production. Methods: Transformed human proximal tubular epithelial cells of the line HKC were used. Secreted FN was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Smad proteins by Western blotting. Chemical inhibitors were used to study the role of p38 MAP kinase and the TGFβ receptor ALK5. The Smad pathway was studied using a cell line overexpressing Smad7 and small interfering RNAs (siRNA). The FN mRNA expression was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: TGFβ1 produced a significant increase in FN secretion in both HKC and Smad7-HKC cells, and the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB202190 markedly reduced this (n = 3, p < 0.05 and p < 0.01). ALK5 inhibition also reduced the TGFβ1-induced FN (n = 3, p < 0.05). Smad knockdown using the siRNA did not reduce the TGFβ1-induced FN secretion. TGFβ1 induced FN mRNA expression in HKC cells, and SB202190 decreased this induction (n = 5, p < 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that TGFβ1-induced FN production in HKC cells is p38 MAP kinase dependent and Smad independent. Targeting p38 MAP kinase may be of therapeutic value in renal fibrosis.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Identification of a member of the MAPKKK family as a potential mediator of TGF-beta signal transduction.

          The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a conserved eukaryotic signaling module that converts receptor signals into various outputs. MAPK is activated through phosphorylation by MAPK kinase (MAPKK), which is first activated by MAPKK kinase (MAPKKK). A genetic selection based on a MAPK pathway in yeast was used to identify a mouse protein kinase (TAK1) distinct from other members of the MAPKKK family. TAK1 was shown to participate in regulation of transcription by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Furthermore, kinase activity of TAK1 was stimulated in response to TGF-beta and bone morphogenetic protein. These results suggest that TAK1 functions as a mediator in the signaling pathway of TGF-beta superfamily members.
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            Suppression of experimental glomerulonephritis by antiserum against transforming growth factor beta 1.

            Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix within the damaged glomeruli, impaired filtration and proteinuria. In its progressive form, the disease destroys kidney function leading to uraemia and death, unless dialysis therapy or kidney transplantation is available. The pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis is incompletely understood, but the eliciting factor is thought often to be an immunological injury to mesangial and/or other resident cells in the glomeruli. We have used an animal model of acute mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis to show that this disease is associated with increased production and activity of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), an inducer of extracellular matrix production. Here we report that administration of anti-TGF-beta 1 at the time of induction of the glomerular disease suppresses the increased production of extracellular matrix and dramatically attenuates histological manifestations of the disease. These results provide direct evidence for a causal role of TGF-beta 1 in the pathogenesis of the experimental disease and suggest a new approach to the therapy of glomerulonephritis.
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              Functional characterization of transforming growth factor beta signaling in Smad2- and Smad3-deficient fibroblasts.

              A prominent pathway of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling involves receptor-dependent phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3, which then translocate to the nucleus to activate transcription of target genes. To investigate the relative importance of these two Smad proteins in TGF-beta1 signal transduction, we have utilized a loss of function approach, based on analysis of the effects of TGF-beta1 on fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos deficient in Smad2 (S2KO) or Smad3 (S3KO). TGF-beta1 caused 50% inhibition of cellular proliferation in wild-type fibroblasts as assessed by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, whereas the growth of S2KO or S3KO cells was only weakly inhibited by TGF-beta1. Lack of Smad2 or Smad3 expression did not affect TGF-beta1-induced fibronectin synthesis but resulted in markedly suppressed induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 by TGF-beta1. Moreover, TGF-beta1-mediated induction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 was selectively dependent on Smad2, whereas induction of c-fos, Smad7, and TGF-beta1 autoinduction relied on expression of Smad3. Investigation of transcriptional activation of TGF-beta-sensitive reporter genes in the different fibroblasts showed that activation of the (Smad binding element)(4)-Lux reporter by TGF-beta1 was dependent on expression of Smad3, but not Smad2, whereas activation of the activin response element-Lux reporter was strongly suppressed in S2KO fibroblasts but, on the contrary, enhanced in S3KO cells. Our findings indicate specific roles for Smad2 and Smad3 in TGF-beta1 signaling.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2007
                March 2007
                07 March 2007
                : 105
                : 4
                : e108-e116
                Affiliations
                South West Thames Institute for Renal Research, St Helier Hospital, Carshalton, UK
                Article
                100492 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2007;105:e108–e116
                10.1159/000100492
                17347580
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 38, Pages: 1
                Categories
                Original Paper

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