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      Determinants of Arterial Distensibility in Patients with Renal Failure

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          Abstract

          Background: An increased stiffness of the arterial system is an adverse risk factor for the outcome in patients with renal disease. Few studies have focused on the determinants of an increased arterial stiffness in patients with renal failure. As the percentage of patients with renal failure secondary to vascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus is rapidly growing, and the underlying disease per se may also influence the arterial wall properties, it may also be of interest to study the arterial wall properties in relation to the etiology of kidney disease. Methods: The distensibility coefficient (DC) of the common carotid artery was used as a marker of arterial stiffness. One hundred and seventeen patients were studied: 47 patients (aged 63 ± 10 years) with renal failure secondary to vascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus and 70 patients (aged 57 ± 13 years) with other diagnoses. The origin of the renal failure was retrieved from the patients’ charts. Results: Age, mean arterial pressure, and serum calcium level were each independent predictors of arterial stiffness (DC). The DC was significantly lower in the patients with vascular renal disease or diabetes mellitus [11.0 ± 5.5 (1/MPa)] as compared with patients with renal/urological diseases [15.4 ± 7.5 (1/MPa)]. Nevertheless, after correction for potentially confounding variables, the relation between cause of renal disease and DC lost significance in the overall group, but remained significant (p < 0.05) in the younger age groups (≤61 years; median age of the patient group). Conclusions: Age, mean arterial pressure, and serum calcium level were independent predictors of arterial stiffness in our patients with renal failure. Only in younger dialysis patients, the origin of renal failure was an independent predictor of arterial wall stiffness.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Creatinine clearance, pulse wave velocity, carotid compliance and essential hypertension.

          The vascular hallmark of subjects with end-stage renal disease is increased arterial stiffness independent of blood pressure, wall stress, and cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, plasma glucose and cholesterol, obesity, and tobacco consumption. Whether arterial stiffness and kidney function are statistically associated in subjects with plasma creatinine < or =130 micromol/L has not yet been determined. Material. In 1290 subjects with normal or elevated blood pressure values and plasma creatinine < or =130 micromol/L, subjects were divided into three tertiles according to the calculated creatinine clearance. Blood pressure, aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), and standard cardiovascular risk factors were determined in parallel. In 112 of the hypertensive subjects, common carotid and radial artery structure and function (high-resolution echo-Doppler techniques) also were measured. From the 1290 subjects, only the low-tertile group presented a significant negative association between PWV and creatinine clearance independently of blood pressure and standard risk factors. This association was stronger in subjects < or =55 years of age. In the 112 hypertensive subjects, carotid compliance was positively correlated to creatinine clearance even after an adjustment for age, gender, and blood pressure. At less than 55 years of age, creatinine clearance represented 20% of the variance of carotid compliance. Such findings were not observed for radial artery compliance. Increased stiffness of central arteries is statistically associated with reduced creatinine clearance in subjects with mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency, indicating that kidney alterations may interact not only with small but also large arteries, and this is independent of age, blood pressure, and standard risk factors.
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            Influence of age and end-stage renal disease on the stiffness of carotid wall material in hypertension.

            Incremental elastic modulus, which is the slope of the relationship between stress and strain of arterial vessels, is a marker of wall material stiffness. The radial artery incremental elastic modulus, which is not influenced by age, is normal or reduced in patients with essential hypertension but increased in patients with end-stage renal disease. Authors of studies on hypertension largely ignore the question of whether the incremental elastic modulus, measured in the common carotid artery as typical of a central artery site, differs according to age or to the presence of end-stage renal disease or both. The carotid incremental elastic modulus was measured in 208 hypertensive patients divided into four groups according to age ( 55 years) and the presence or absence of end-stage renal disease. The incremental elastic modulus was calculated from transcutaneous measurements of arterial internal diameter and wall thickness (echo-tracking device) and carotid pulse pressure (tonometry). Because the four groups of subjects had the same mean arterial pressure, the static incremental elastic modulus was calculated both in isobaric conditions and for the same wall stress. In nonuremic subjects, lumen diameter, wall thickness and the incremental elastic modulus were significantly (P < 0.001) increased in older subjects whereas compliance and distensibility were decreased. The mean (+/- SD) elastic modulus was 0.41 +/- 0.14 x 10(3) kPa in younger and 0.71 +/- 0.28 x 10(3) kPa in older subjects. In uremic subjects, the corresponding values were 0.48 +/- 0.30 and 0.90 +/- 0.49 x 10(3) kPa, and therefore higher than in nonuremic subjects, irrespective of age. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, mean arterial pressure and the presence of end-stage renal disease independently influenced carotid diameter, distensibility and the incremental elastic modulus. In hypertensive patients, the carotid incremental elastic modulus is increased independently in aging men and women and in the presence of uremia. This increase is not dependent on mechanical factors such as the level of mean blood pressure.
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              Arterial wall properties in patients with renal failure.

              Hemodialysis (HD) patients commonly show abnormalities of the arterial system. Only a few studies have focused on arterial wall properties in patients with early stages of renal insufficiency and patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy. In this study, the distensibility coefficient (DC), a marker of arterial stiffening and intima media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) and a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, was assessed in four age-matched groups of patients: 18 HD patients, 36 PD patients, 30 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) not yet on dialysis therapy with a creatinine clearance (CCl) between 10 and 70 mL/min, and 25 normotensive controls with normal renal function. Arterial wall properties were assessed by an automated vessel wall detection system. In patients with CRF and HD patients, but not PD patients, the DC of the CCA was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) compared with controls (CRF, 12.6 +/- 7.5 10(-3)/kPa; HD, 11.6 +/- 7.6 10(-3)/kPa; and PD, 14.7 +/- 6.2 10(-3)/kPa compared with controls, 16.7 +/- 4.6 10(-3)/kPa). In patients with CRF, a significant relationship was found between CCl and the DC (r = 0.41; P = 0.02). IMT was not different among patients with CRF (589 +/- 115 microm), HD (622 +/- 115 microm) and PD patients (585 +/- 121 microm), and controls (668 +/- 150 microm). In conclusion, compared with controls, the DC of the CCA was significantly reduced in HD patients and those with CRF, but not PD patients. In patients with CRF, the DC correlated significantly with CCl. IMT did not differ between groups of renal patients and controls. Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2137
                2003
                November 2003
                01 December 2003
                : 95
                : 3
                : p43-p48
                Affiliations
                Departments of aInternal Medicine and Nephrology, and bSurgery, University Hospital, Maastricht, Departments of cBiophysics and dClinical Epidemiology and Medical Technology Assessment, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, and eDepartment of Internal Medicine, St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg, The Netherlands; fUniversity of Witten, Witten, Germany
                Article
                74329 Nephron Physiol 2003;95:p43–p48
                10.1159/000074329
                14646357
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 20, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/74329
                Categories
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