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      PTEN: Multiple Functions in Human Malignant Tumors

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          Abstract

          PTEN is the most important negative regulator of the PI3K signaling pathway. In addition to its canonical, PI3K inhibition-dependent functions, PTEN can also function as a tumor suppressor in a PI3K-independent manner. Indeed, the PTEN network regulates a broad spectrum of biological functions, modulating the flow of information from membrane-bound growth factor receptors to nuclear transcription factors, occurring in concert with other tumor suppressors and oncogenic signaling pathways. PTEN acts through its lipid and protein phosphatase activity and other non-enzymatic mechanisms. Studies conducted over the past 10 years have expanded our understanding of the biological role of PTEN, showing that in addition to its ability to regulate proliferation and cell survival, it also plays an intriguing role in regulating genomic stability, cell migration, stem cell self-renewal, and tumor microenvironment. Changes in PTEN protein levels, location, and enzymatic activity through various molecular mechanisms can generate a continuum of functional PTEN levels in inherited syndromes, sporadic cancers, and other diseases. PTEN activity can indeed, be modulated by mutations, epigenetic silencing, transcriptional repression, aberrant protein localization, and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss our current understanding of the biological role of PTEN, how PTEN expression and activity are regulated, and the consequences of PTEN dysregulation in human malignant tumors.

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          Most cited references 146

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          PTEN, a putative protein tyrosine phosphatase gene mutated in human brain, breast, and prostate cancer.

          Mapping of homozygous deletions on human chromosome 10q23 has led to the isolation of a candidate tumor suppressor gene, PTEN, that appears to be mutated at considerable frequency in human cancers. In preliminary screens, mutations of PTEN were detected in 31% (13/42) of glioblastoma cell lines and xenografts, 100% (4/4) of prostate cancer cell lines, 6% (4/65) of breast cancer cell lines and xenografts, and 17% (3/18) of primary glioblastomas. The predicted PTEN product has a protein tyrosine phosphatase domain and extensive homology to tensin, a protein that interacts with actin filaments at focal adhesions. These homologies suggest that PTEN may suppress tumor cell growth by antagonizing protein tyrosine kinases and may regulate tumor cell invasion and metastasis through interactions at focal adhesions.
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            Inhibition of mTORC1 leads to MAPK pathway activation through a PI3K-dependent feedback loop in human cancer.

            Numerous studies have established a causal link between aberrant mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and tumorigenesis, indicating that mTOR inhibition may have therapeutic potential. In this study, we show that rapamycin and its analogs activate the MAPK pathway in human cancer, in what represents a novel mTORC1-MAPK feedback loop. We found that tumor samples from patients with biopsy-accessible solid tumors of advanced disease treated with RAD001, a rapamycin derivative, showed an administration schedule-dependent increase in activation of the MAPK pathway. RAD001 treatment also led to MAPK activation in a mouse model of prostate cancer. We further show that rapamycin-induced MAPK activation occurs in both normal cells and cancer cells lines and that this feedback loop depends on an S6K-PI3K-Ras pathway. Significantly, pharmacological inhibition of the MAPK pathway enhanced the antitumoral effect of mTORC1 inhibition by rapamycin in cancer cells in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. Taken together, our findings identify MAPK activation as a consequence of mTORC1 inhibition and underscore the potential of a combined therapeutic approach with mTORC1 and MAPK inhibitors, currently employed as single agents in the clinic, for the treatment of human cancers.
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              The tumor suppressor, PTEN/MMAC1, dephosphorylates the lipid second messenger, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate.

              Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) is a key molecule involved in cell growth signaling. We demonstrated that overexpression of PTEN, a putative tumor suppressor, reduced insulin-induced PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 production in human 293 cells without effecting insulin-induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation. Further, transfection of the catalytically inactive mutant of PTEN (C124S) caused PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 accumulation in the absence of insulin stimulation. Purified recombinant PTEN catalyzed dephosphorylation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, specifically at position 3 on the inositol ring. PTEN also exhibited 3-phosphatase activity toward inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Our results raise the possibility that PTEN acts in vivo as a phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase by regulating PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 levels. As expected, the C124S mutant of PTEN was incapable of catalyzing dephosphorylation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 consistent with the mechanism observed in protein-tyrosine phosphatase-catalyzed reactions.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Oncol
                Front Oncol
                Front. Oncol.
                Frontiers in Oncology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2234-943X
                16 February 2015
                2015
                : 5
                Affiliations
                1Division of Medical Oncology A, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute , Rome, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Alexandre Arcaro, University of Bern, Switzerland

                Reviewed by: Daniel Christian Hoessli, University of Karachi, Pakistan; Bernd E. R. Nuernberg, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany

                *Correspondence: Ludovica Ciuffreda, Division of Medical Oncology A, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Via Elio Chianesi 53, Rome 00144, Italy e-mail: ludovicaciuffreda@ 123456hotmail.com

                This article was submitted to Molecular and Cellular Oncology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Oncology.

                Article
                10.3389/fonc.2015.00024
                4329810
                Copyright © 2015 Milella, Falcone, Conciatori, Cesta Incani, Del Curatolo, Inzerilli, Nuzzo, Vaccaro, Vari, Cognetti and Ciuffreda.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 198, Pages: 14, Words: 13151
                Categories
                Oncology
                Review Article

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                pten, cancer, subcellular localization, phts, pi3k

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